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This research adopted the theme of Early Childhood Education and its consequences as an educational policy in the city of Recife. The choice of this subject is related to the need to understand the proposals and the execution of the services of Early Childhood Education in the municipal network of Recife. Our work as a teacher in Early Childhood Education in a given period was the first motivating element for the development of research on this object.
The gateway to the first classroom experiences was at the private preschool. Later, in a day care center and in a municipal preschool, from where, although in a metaphorical sense, he did not want to leave. The experience on the nursery floor enabled several discoveries, great challenges were experienced, reflected and reframed. Reports of the numerous difficulties in the lives of the public served, the incessant search for vacancies, the limitations of financial resources and especially the understanding about the distinction between welfare and Social Assistance Policies. It is a great challenge to clarify to society that the daycare center is not limited to a place for the custody of children, but to discoveries and learning that make up their training and that, although there is no mandatory enrollment in the daycare center, it is the inauguration of the world of countless opportunities.
In this context of deepening studies, it is clear that, in the short time of its recognition, we still retain the rancidity of early childhood education for the poor and for the poor. Through struggles and debates, we will gradually break this paradigm.
We believe that understanding and recognizing the importance of early childhood education requires efforts, including expanding the debate in society to raise awareness about the specificities of early childhood education, so that, in a sum of efforts, the defense of this stage human formation is strengthened, through a critical look at the strategies and treatments for Early Childhood Education.
It is not the aim of this research to exhaust these discussions, but we seek to address this issue as a research movement, so that our focus on the analysis of the Municipal Education Plan of Recife and its relationship with Early Childhood Education allows us to observe how the goals are presented. and strategies and the paths to execution.
The recognition of childhood as a stage of human formation, composed of specificities, is a very recent advent in world history. In the first records, there was no evidence that representatives of society had any consideration for the existence of children and especially for their needs.
Around the 14th century, children began to excel in paintings in different situations; however, it is prudent to analyze the context of this participation: sometimes for the child to participate in adult life, sometimes for the representation of the “funny”. Recalling that in this period infant mortality was something natural, due to the poor demographic conditions, something that extended from the middle of the 13th to the 17th century. When bringing a more recent discussion in Brazil, the historical records show that in the late 1980s, during the process of redemocratization, there were several changes to Brazilian educational policy. This movement gave rise to discussions in ideological fields of Politics, Sociology and Psychology, impacting Brazilian Early Childhood Education. Thus, there were changes in the paradigms recognizing that childhood is a stage of human formation with very specific characteristics.
In the context of the municipality of Recife, when the vote was not yet a right of the population, being managed by a constituent, the appointment to the position of municipal mayor was made by the governor, with the approval of the Legislative Assembly. The mayors of that time were baptized as bionic mayors and, in Recife, the last term before the democratic reopening was held by Joaquim Francisco de Freitas Cavalcanti, from March 15 to December 31, 1985. A report from this period dated in 1985 describes the actions for training personnel, using research units, planning focused on project execution and performance evaluation, organized by Fundação Guararapes. For the preschool, two classes were organized with 55 enrolled teachers, with a workload of 80 hours, with 42 teachers receiving certificates and 13 receiving declarations, with the Ministry of Education as the funding source.
The process of reopening national policy, instituting the election for mayor of Recife by direct vote, announced the restructuring of the municipality’s political identity. The first elected mayor, Jarbas de Andrade Vasconcelos, was in charge from January 1, 1986 to December 31, 1989, and there are documents with records on the history of the Municipal Education of Recife listing the experiences lived in education throughout from the 1980s. In one of the reports, the core of production at the Vasco da Gama primary school is described, which offered pre-school, literacy and primary education, with an apparent focus on training for work. However, quantitative and qualitative data on the care provided at this unit are scarce. In another historical record, we have a report from the Municipal Education Council for the period from March to December 1987. It discusses the instruments used in activities to improve the municipal education system, such as documents, and deliberations, visits techniques and studies, aiming at connecting the Municipal Council with other organs of the City of Recife, aiming at the changes in the results of performance and expansion of Municipal Education. Under the studies carried out in this period, we highlight the “document on the municipal preschool: political definition and curricular proposal” (RECIFE, 1988), indicating the first essays on the municipal policy aimed at the preschool, describing the discussion between the Council National of State Secretaries (CONSED) and the National Union of Municipal Education Directors (UNDIME) and what were the conceptions of education in the face of the advent of the Federal Constitution. Continuing research on municipal education throughout the 1980s, records point to a compromised education system, measured in the results of repetition and dropout in elementary school. Thus, the following guiding principles were defined: “universal access, guaranteeing permanence, valuing the educator and democratizing management” (RECIFE, 1994, p. 01).
In relation to society, community leaders defended the need for popular participation in municipal management, requiring the creation of several strategies and mechanisms that would allow the exercise of democracy. In the educational field, methods like PREZEIS facilitated the installation of several school councils in the neighborhoods, but with insufficient performance to ensure their continuity, being disabled in the beginning of 1989.
In the municipal administration from 1989 to 1992, due to the different political profiles, the movements on the educational policy of the municipality weakened what happened in negative results. In this scenario, Art. 135, of the Organic Law of the Municipality, in 1990, established the Council Municipal Education (CME), aiming to improve care and quality in teaching. Consequently, with the growth in demands in municipal education, there was a need for its re-signification, which occurred through Law No. 16.190 / 96, which expanded the participation of representatives of the various segments interacting in the constructions and decisions on the directions of municipal education, which provided the opportunity diligence in meeting the needs of public education, becoming one of the examples of the first actions in the model of democratic management in the administration of school spaces. Subsequently, the abovementioned law was repealed through Law No. 17,325/07, which essentially indicated the appreciation of the Municipal Education Plan.
Currently, it is possible to observe some changes, advances and transformations in Recife’s municipal education, especially in view of their accountability, given by the collaboration regime between the Union, states and municipalities, in order to comply with national education legislation. In this context, we have Law No. 18,147 / 15, the Municipal Education Plan, which is valid for 10 years (2015-2025), exceeding the limits of a government policy and consolidating itself as a State Public Policy. The purpose of this document is to express the educational identity of the municipality; composed of goals and strategies, it considers the changes that have occurred in society over time.
That said, the problem discussed in our research is directed to the relationship between the current Municipal Education Plan and Early Childhood Education in the municipality of Recife. So that we elaborate the following questions: What is the conception of childhood proposed in this document? Is there a commitment to the goals established in terms of quality and guarantee of the offer? What are the strategies and actions taken by the municipal education system for its execution?
Given this situation, our general objective is to analyze the Municipal Education Plan (PME) – Recife, as an educational policy of the municipality, identifying the concept of childhood present in the document seeking to identify how this opinion materializes in its goals and strategies. As specific objectives, we seek to understand the construction path of the PME – Recife and its discussion on Early Childhood Education; analyze the goals and strategies proposed for Early Childhood Education; identify and analyze the materialization of strategies in the practice of politics in the municipality of Recife. To achieve these objectives, it was necessary, during the research, to recover historical elements that contain the conditions of the Early Childhood Education Policy in the municipality of Recife.
To meet the objectives, we adopted the elements belonging to qualitative research, widely used in education research, as it offers greater contact between the researcher and the environment to be researched. Like “all reality data is considered important. The researcher must, therefore, pay attention to the greatest possible number of elements present in the studied situation ”(LÜDKE, 1986, p. 12). That said, in the next chapter of this paper, we will discuss more carefully the methodological procedures adopted in this research.
CHAPTER I – PUBLIC POLICIES
The theme of culture is one of the most complex and emerging in contemporary times, involving both the social and individual dimensions. It is impossible to talk about identity without referring to culture because we understand that the construction of identity takes place within it.
Understanding the concept of culture is necessary to think about the universality of humanity in diversity beyond biological terms. A dilemma that remains at the center of numerous controversies given the concern of man with the diversity of modes of behavior that exist between different peoples. Cuche (1999) argues that culture provides the most satisfactory answer to the question of differences between peoples, who are differentiated by their cultural choices and the creation of solutions to their problems.
Culture explains the behavior of man and his actions in the society in which he lives, so there is not a single culture, but yes, cultures, one for each cultural group. Therefore, man is eminently a being of culture.
Each culture is unique, whose customs, ways of life, can only be explained if related to their cultural context. Each culture is constituted in a “particular way” that manifests itself through language, beliefs, customs, art, which influences the behavior and actions of individuals and expresses their identity.
Together with Cuche (1999) it can be understood that cultures are not “pure”, suffer external influences when they come into contact with other ways of life, revealing their dynamic character, they are always in the process of construction, deconstruction and reconstruction, being this the principle of evolution of any cultural system.
The most recent definition of culture was elaborated by Geertz (2008, p. 04), who assumes a semiotic concept of culture, when he borrows from Weber the idea that “[…] man is an animal tied in webs of meanings that he himself wove, I take culture as these webs and their analysis ”. In this web, the concept of culture,
[…] denotes a pattern of meanings transmitted historically, incorporated into symbols, a system of inherited concepts expressed in symbolic forms through which men communicate, perpetuate and develop their knowledge and activities in relation to life (GEERTZ, 2008 , p. 66).
When understanding the meaning of these webs as being the culture itself, Geertz (2008) refutes the deterministic conception (biological and geographical) that, since Antiquity, sought to explain the differences in behavior between men. Unlike the view of uniformity of human nature dominant in the Enlightenment, which was seen as a constant image, regardless of time, place and circumstance, Geertz (2008) is fully convinced that all men are modified by the customs of specific places.
It recognizes that diversity is not just a matter of dress, scenery, appearance, but humanity is extremely varied in its essence. “What man is can be so involved with where he is, who he is and what he believes, that he is inseparable from him” (GEERTZ, 2008, p. 26). This possibility of understanding man allowed for the emergence of the concept of culture and the weakening of man’s uniform perspective.
From the uniform and unchanging vision of man, there is no way to think about a project for the cultural formation of teachers (curriculum) unrelated to its context, the local culture, in which it will act professionally, in order to consider the plural cultural identities and the singularities of each student, their needs. This model implies the application of universal truths in local contexts, denying the customs and specific knowledge of these groups.
Contrary to this view, the perspective of culture defended by Geertz (2008) leads us to understand culture not as a uniform and immutable fabric, but constitutes a diversity of appearance and singular forms in each society, not imposing itself in an indisputable way and identical for all individuals, as it is subjected to symbolic forces and constant interpretative conflicts. This proposition makes us realize that culture is never the same, it is always a production / creation / elaboration of a system of meanings through which individuals define their world and express their feelings, which are produced in specific historical and social contexts .
In the search for integration between man and culture, culture must be understood not as a “complex of concrete behavior patterns, but as a control mechanism, plans, recipes, rules, instructions for governing behavior” (GEERTZ, 2008, p. 32) human through cultural standards, without which man’s behavior would be ungovernable. Culture is, therefore, the instrument of humanization of man.
Without men there would certainly be no culture, but similarly and very significantly, without culture there would be no men. Adding it all up, we are incomplete and unfinished animals that we complete and end up through culture – not through culture in general, but through highly particular forms of culture: Dobuan and Javanese, Hopi and Italian, upper and lower class, academic and commercial (GEERTZ, 2008, p. 36).
As mentioned by the author, there is no human nature independent of culture, man at birth is already a cultural being, insofar as he needs to grasp a complex of symbols that will give meaning to his life and the possibility of interpreting his experiences in his group. All men are genetically able to receive the culture, which is why Geertz (2008, p. 33) states that “one of the most significant facts about us may finally be the realization that we are all born with equipment to live a thousand lives, but we are finished in the end living only one ”. This single life would be the result of a set of meanings constructed, taught and learned individually and collectively in a real and particular context.
Studying culture is, therefore, studying a code of symbols shared by the members of that culture, in which “[…] human being is not being any man; it is to be a particular species of man ”(GEERTZ, 2008, p. 38) and not a being with a universal essence as the Enlightenment proposed. The author takes a possible position on this issue and advises that in the relationship between man and culture, cultural universals and the particularities of different cultures cannot be ruled out. There is an intrinsic relationship between the two positions. It is possible to find these universals through their particularities. Culture has shaped us as we are and still does, but in a different, joint and individual way. Each culture is unique, just as each individual within that culture is also, but in one way or another, that individual is, above all, a cultural being.
So we can infer that in societies, differences are recognized, because the way man becomes human differs from one culture to another. Thus, the differences of each culture are explained by the cultural history of each group, which reflects the knowledge and experiences acquired by the generations that preceded it. Culture is one of the aspects that most marks a people, reveals its identity.
Hall (1997), when theorizing about cultural issues, highlights that culture has assumed a central role in all dimensions of social life. We must recognize the importance of culture in people’s lives, at the university and in teacher training. Hall (1997) analyzes the centrality of culture from two aspects: a substantive and an epistemological aspect. By noun we understand the “[…] place of culture in the real empirical structure and in the organization of activities, institutions and cultural relations in society, at any particular historical moment”. And by epistemological aspect, it refers to “[…] the position of culture in relation to questions of knowledge and conceptualization, in how ‘culture’ is used to transform our understanding, explanation and theoretical models of the world” (HALL , 1997, p. 01).
The imposition of a market model on all peoples generates inequalities, strengthening the cultural differences of the groups it intends to silence, resulting in greater multicultural visibility.
The epistemological dimension indicates a paradigm shift – the so-called cultural turn -, which broadens the understanding of the notion of culture, making it central to the constitution and determination of institutions and social relations. Hall (1997) finds its origin in the change in attitude towards the way we understand the role of language in the analysis and understanding of social life. It is about the relationship between language and reality. The merely instrumental conception of language, employed in modernity, assumed an instituting role of reality itself, at the same time that it is influenced by it, that is, language does not reflect the real world, but it institutes it, giving it meaning. Thus, language loses its neutral character and name of things existing in the world and assumes the central role in the construction and circulation of meaning.
[…] culture is nothing more than the sum of different classification systems and different discursive formations that the language uses in order to give meaning to things. The term “discourse” itself refers to a series of information, in any domain, that provides a language to be able to talk about a subject and a way to produce a particular type of knowledge. The term refers to both the production of knowledge through language and representation, and the way in which knowledge is institutionalized, shaping social practices and putting new practices into operation (HALL, 1997, p. 10).
The understanding of culture as systems of meaning advocates that all social and cultural action . It enables us to build meanings about things, knowledge, our actions and that of other individuals. Thus, all institutions and social relations, economic, social, political and educational processes are cultural. It is important to highlight that Hall (1997) does not propose a reductionism to the cultural, but argues that every social practice has a cultural dimension or a dimension of meaning, in other words, a discursive character, which allows us to understand the interpenetration between these processes, given that these interfere in our identities due to the relationship that is established between the material and the economic, on the one hand, and the cultural and symbolic, on the other.
In this sense, it breaks with the static view of culture, revealing its dynamic and mobile character. Culture emerges in the actions and reactions of subjects in interaction, it is a permanent process of construction and reconstruction. With regard to knowledge and educational practices, they cease to be understood as objective and neutral data, whose process of knowing is reduced to the subject’s assimilation of the object and come to be seen as social and cultural constructions through language and communication. representation.
Culture as a process of signification leads us to question how cultural identities have been contemplated and worked on in the initial training of teachers, specifically, in the Pedagogy Course, as it is a space of cultural production, to the extent that “[…] it works as a system of meanings within which the senses are produced by the subjects ”(LOPES; MACEDO, 2011, p. 186). These meanings are instituted as criteria of validity and legitimacy, resulting from the power relations that cross the entire process of teacher education such as the curriculum, pedagogical practices, teaching processes and the speeches produced. Which voices are present and which are absent? How are the knowledge of local culture articulated in the process of training the future teacher? How does the Pedagogy course contribute to the formation of an intercultural identity? What cultural identities are being formed? Such questions cannot be answered easily, since they are inserted in the power relations of cultural dynamics. Culture as a political field leads us to another issue analyzed by Hall (1997, p. 18): culture is not only regulated, but also governs us. It deals specifically with the relationship between culture and power. Culture is governed by both explicit censorship mechanisms and less visible forms of control operated by institutions, the market or even tradition. Culture “[…] regulates our conduct, social and practical actions and, thus, the way we act in the context of institutions and in the wider society”.
Hall (1997) highlights three mechanisms of “regulation through culture”, which govern the subjects’ ways of thinking and acting: the normative , deals with the tacit norms of conduct, the values common to all, the social conventions, taking them to act in a predictable, determined manner; the classification systems , in which actions are classified and behaviors and practices are compared according to the cultural classification system, defining what is acceptable and not acceptable, moral and immoral and; the constitution of identities – the regulation of the types of subjects we are -, constituted by the change in the organizational system of which we are a part. In other words, culture constitutes identities.
We need to understand the mechanisms of regulation and power that authorize certain discourses and silence others, that value certain identities to the detriment of others. Culture, therefore, constitutes a space of conflicts in which power relations are developed around practices of meaning and representation.
It is in this direction that culture becomes a political arena, in which struggles are fought around the meanings that determine the hierarchies for regulating the conduct and actions of the subjects. We consider, then, pertinent to bring to this discussion the contributions of Giroux (2003, p. 16), who argues that the struggles in the field of culture “[…] are fundamental to any perspective that wishes to forge articulations of discursive and material, theoretical and practical, as well as between pedagogy and social change ”.
1.1 . Education versus culture
Education and culture are closely linked. There is no way to dissociate them, since the school universe, in addition to being political and social, is also cultural. Men and women could not transmit their systems of values and symbols, their different experiences and languages, their concepts of the world and society apart from an educational action that also constitutes itself as cultural.
Culture is human creation, constituting a dynamic and active process, therefore historical. To think of the school excluding its cultural nature, is certainly to deprive this institution of its human dimension.
The human dimension depends on culture, with this, it does not mean that the cultural element is the most important to be considered for the understanding of the educational processes that take place inside the school. However, educational processes are crossed by the circularity of culture / s. Therefore, there is not a single culture, but several. Cultural diversity gives rise to different ways of seeing and knowing the world.
The school assumes a complex character, since issues, until recently dormant, increasingly receive deserved notoriety, and lead us to ( re ) think critically and consistently the society of which we are a part.
The high and accelerated performance of the sciences and technologies of communication and information, the emergence of the “look” focused on the social and ethical commitment to the environment and its management in a balanced and sustainable manner, the respect and appreciation of ethnic minorities , class, gender, historically marginalized and, substantially, the recognition and problematization of the multi / intercultural facet of education.
These questions make it possible to think and ( re ) configure the components that embody school culture in a given historical context. Immersed in a more general culture, the school integrates a set of values, habits, beliefs, procedures, discourses and meanings that legitimize its particular culture: the culture of the school.
Culture, society and school are in a mutual generating relationship; in this relationship, we cannot forget the interactions between individuals, themselves carriers / transmitters of culture, which regenerate society, which regenerates culture (MORIN, 1998, p. 23).
It is possible to say that it is through culture that men and women inform their view of the world and their understanding of it. Culture due to its dynamic character and its pro-activity allows men and women to be, in a dialectical perspective, products and producers of culture.
In the view of Morin (2001, p. 56):
[…] culture is constituted by the set of knowledge, actions, rules, norms, prohibitions, strategies, beliefs, ideas, values, myths, which is transmitted from generation to generation, reproduces in each individual, controls the existence of society and maintains psychological and social complexity. Not human, archaic or modern society, devoid of culture, but each culture is unique. Thus, there is always culture in cultures, but culture exists only through cultures.
The school brings together multiple cultural experiences. However, considering that, often, as historically they have been found, these cultural experiences can take place in the sense of the imposition of universal cultural standards.
Affirming the importance of culture for understanding the school and what develops in its daily life, ponders Candau (1997, p. 240):
It is not a matter of assuming a markedly culturalist stance, which covers the ideological components linked to the class structure and the structural components that determine society. However, it is a matter of giving the cultural component due attention and overcoming any prospect of reducing it to a mere by-product or reflection of the social structure in force in our society. The awareness that this is a configuring dimension of the human being at deep levels, at the personal and collective level, is increasingly affirmed.
With that said, it is worth exposing that different approaches to culture or cultures propose different references in terms of understanding the concept, since it translates into a connection to tense, often conflicting processes that develop in society, in relationships in the group and between groups.
According to Cuche (2002), among the first constructions of the concept, the understanding of what is presumed about culture was associated with the processes of plant and animal cultivation.
The etymological origin of the word culture designates from Latin, where care is meant, the treatment given to fields or cattle. Therefore, it appears at the end of the 13th century to designate a parcel of cultivated land.
At the beginning of the 16th century, it (culture) no longer means a state (of the cultivated thing), but an action, that is, the fact of cultivating the land. Only in the middle of the 16th century did the figurative meaning and “culture” form, then, could designate the culture of a faculty, that is, the fact of working to develop it.
And, at the end of the 18th century, it transitioned to the “active cultivation” of the human mind. Therefore, culture is related to training. We move from “culture” as an action (action to instruct) to “culture” as a state – a state of mind cultivated by instruction, a state of an individual who has culture (CUCHE, 2002, p. 30-34).
Over time, in the scope of social sciences such as Anthropology and Sociology, the term culture / s has been attributed numerous meanings and meanings, in view of the development of scientific research and the articulation of the knowledge produced, since, scientifically, the concept of culture is also involved in its historical evolution.
In Geertz’s (1989) perspective, culture has essentially a semiotic character. Therefore, for Geertz (1989, p. 23), culture is seen as an intertwined system of interpretable signs, looking for meaning, therefore, a context that can be described.
Thus, he observes culture as, “a system of inherited conceptions, expressed in symbolic forms through which men communicate, perpetuate and develop their knowledge and their activities in relation to life”. From the perspective of Freire and Faudez (1985, p. 31):
Culture is not only the artistic or intellectual manifestation that is expressed through thought, culture is manifested above all in the simplest gestures of everyday life. Culture is to eat differently, to hold hands differently, to relate to others in a different way. So that it seems to me that the use of these three concepts, culture, differences and tolerance, are new uses of old concepts. Culture for us, I insist, are all human manifestations, including daily life , and fundamentally in daily life is the discovery of the different, which is essential.
Culture allows the subject to make sense of their social experiences and their contexts of relationships. Thus, culture is especially linked to the subjects’ material and social life. Cultural manifestations reveal what is essential in them: differences. The differences, according to Freire and Faudez (1985, p. 31) “help us to understand ourselves and our own daily life “. The differences mark the complexity that the heterogeneous socio-cultural environment represents.
Culture, as a symbolic power, is registered in relations of forces (asymmetrically determined), because in any social space, it is possible to clearly abstract cultural differences, therefore, culture has the “power to construct reality that tends to establish an order gnosiological […] power to constitute the given by the enunciation, to see and make believe, to confirm or to transform the world view and, thus, the action on the world, therefore, the world (BOURDIEU, 1989, p . 9).
Culture or cultures are constantly being reworked, rebuilt, undergoing constant processes of redefinition because that is the way social relations also happen. Cultures are not ready, finished so that they can be readily consumed or transmitted, but are linked to human productivity, to the fertility of social processes. These processes take place in a context permeated by tensions, conflicts, contestation, power and transgression (SILVA, 1995), therefore, they are not neutral and, above all, they are not ideologically displaced.
The increase in its importance, which is increasing in the school sphere, is reflected in the speeches and pedagogical practices, particularly in the production of the school curriculum.
The school absorbs culture, by the way, as in the case of the Amazon, plural and polysemic, in its curriculum. The school curriculum is where culture materializes (SACRISTÁN, 2001).
Sacristán says that the curriculum is a selection of culture and a particular culture. The school reconstructs culture through its specificity as an educational institution, however, it must be careful not to deal with changes in the social environment in a punctual, palliative, watertight way. For, it is understood that,
[…] Cultural changes reach schools through curricula, but only to the extent that they are shaped by concrete practices. In other words: the alternative to dominant schooling for a different cultural project implies a constant effort to decode schooling conditions, because without the transformation of these conditions there are no possibilities for curricular or cultural changes, since the concept of curriculum is inherent in the fact that it is linked to a form of structuring educational institutions (SACRISTÀN, 1996, p. 37).
The curriculum is a field of relations productivity (MOREIRA, 2005) marked by cultural dynamics, therefore, it is constantly available for the work that is proper to reconstruction. In this sense, the school could not hostile or deny the conditions of production of the curriculum, which is linked to cultural, linguistic and class issues, etc.
In this way, the school plays an ideological role, in this sense, Freire (2000, p. 124) emphasizes that “the more we talk, think and analyze the power of ideology, the more we become or we can become stronger to fight against her, experimenting us in new forms of practice. ” It is often observed that the elaboration and transmission of culture takes place under a neutral position, hiding the relations of social classes and power.
The curricular text, as a discourse that is not neutral, is constituted as a narrative that produces meanings (SILVA, 1995). Under which narrative or narratives, then, is the curriculum profiled? Under the domination of stereotypes traditionally put?
These questions are important tools for problematizing the curriculum, since, through the narrative (s) incorporated in the curriculum, identity processes are formed and legitimized. In relation to identities, what is prevailing in the classrooms of public schools in the country?
For Costa (2005, p. 52) “when a narrative of the curriculum talks about something or someone, it also disposes about that object and its proper position: it names, frames, regulates, coordinates”.
Hence the substantial aspect in which the curriculum is produced, since the narratives that are embodied in it, whether explicit or not, establish notions about what is legitimate to know, the ways of conveying feasible and valid knowledge, social groups and cultural events that will be represented, etc.
Hence the necessary critical reflection on the cultural patterns that figure predominantly in school curricula, traditionally monolithic, since the emphasis on universal and dominant knowledge undermines and sometimes hides knowledge and knowledge originally of a popular or non-academic character.
By operating based on an educational project, which also constitutes a political project, when the school takes on this project, it is crossed by a worldview, ideas from social and political groups, and a specific way of conceiving knowledge:
[…] that the knowledge acquired at school is not neutral, but selected, ordered and structured in particular ways, constituting the emphases and exclusions involved in the effects of an underlying logic, not always made explicit (MOREIRA, 1995, p. 7).
Contrary to what is predominantly presented in public schools, the curriculum is neither neutral nor harmonious, but a significant instrument that starts to reflect a certain educational concept that gives rise to the political, social and cultural dimensions.
In this, the curriculum when thought and executed at school does not escape power relations. Its link with power guides and ensures the interests and cultural hegemony of the ruling social class.
The educational process, with all its elements of determination (methodologies, objectives, syllabus, didactic-pedagogical procedures, etc. ) investigates the class hegemony that results in a monolithic school culture.
When it is postulated that the curriculum is formed in a context where there are power relations, this confirms that knowledge (curriculum content) is the result of a negotiation policy.
In this negotiation, values, habits, knowledge are privileged to the detriment of existing ones. The privileged knowledge, which becomes official in the school environment, is coordinated from the ideological force that also holds hegemony linked to social classes or dominant groups.
According to Mclaren (1997), according to the postulates of critical pedagogy, the school is inclined to privilege the dominant cultural capital, markedly elitist, ethnocentric that overlaps and subordinates the cultural capital of the popular or minority classes in the course of power relations.
The author points out that cultural capital concerns “the general cultural formulation, knowledge, disposition and skills that are passed on from generation to generation. When the school subverts the differences of cultural capital in the standardization of its pedagogical processes, it is reinforcing the inequalities, that is why the importance of “understanding the curriculum as part of a broader struggle between dominant and subordinate discourses” (MOREIRA, 2001, p. 12 ).
The formation of the curriculum does not dispense with critical reflection on the real conditions of its historical, cultural and power nature. Paulo Freire (1992) postulates that in all times, the power among many rights that is granted, has always had as its intrinsic condition itself, the right to profile, to describe who has no power. The way in which the selection, organization and execution of the school curriculum is established puts in check traditional questions: for what, for whom, against whom, what and how to teach, what knowledge will be taught? Issues that are of interest to everyone involved in the educational process, especially educators. When these issues are raised, discussed democratically within the educational institution, space is opened for the apprehension of the logic that permeates the formation of the school curriculum, in order to express and understand the different ideological positions, including, against hegemonic ones through dialogue that is so important for the critical awareness of the confrontation of knowledge, values, representations imbricated to the educational process.
- 2 . The school curriculum and cultural diversity
The curriculum has been an expression of different senses and meanings. The word curriculum comes from Latin and means the course, the route. Goodson (1996) examines it as a path to be followed, as content expressed in schooling.
The school curriculum has a history or stories from which curriculum theorizing is formulated . In effect, this theorization produces approaches that demarcate conceptions and theories about the curriculum, ranging from traditional theories, such as the Theories of Reproduction to the Critical Theory of the Curriculum that treats it as a political issue (VEIGA-NETO, 2001). Critical curriculum theory, as Moreira (2005) reports, is a very productive and fertile field, although it has recently been facing a state of crisis brought about by the difficulty of making the theoretical advances elaborated for the curricular field concretely come into pedagogical practice, or more specifically to teaching practice.
Therefore, the crisis that plagues critical curriculum theory is not established for reasons linked to theory, but to practice. Going further, as critical theory is an instrument of resistance and contestation to ideological processes hidden in the theory-practice relationship, its effective translation into practice requires politically assuming an eminently emancipatory educational project, which is sometimes unfeasible due to hegemonic interests that overlap the interests of minority groups politically, economically and culturally.
However, it is from the point of view of critical theorizing of the curriculum and, in one of its most recent “trends”, Cultural Studies that seeks to understand the relationship between school, curriculum and culture, linking them to the issue of cultural diversity and differences.
According to Giroux (1995), Cultural Studies emphasizes the relationship between culture, knowledge and power. School education and the curriculum, within the scope of this theoretical field, are closely intertwined with the cultural process (MOREIRA; SILVA, 1995).
The school territory, as a social arena, ends up being the space where there are inevitably processes of cultural encounters / mismatches. In the case of our country, marked by its socio-cultural and economic diversity, this statement receives a special tonic.
Regarding diversity, theoretically, much progress has been made in discussing the plural character of education, either retrospectively or prospectively, however, on a practical level, the Brazilian school, with some exceptions, is still based on a monocultural and universalist foundation when it comes to education. school. There are approaches that associate the curriculum as a learning experience or as school knowledge (SILVA , 1996). In another aspect, like De Alba (apud RIGAL, 2000, p. 190), the curriculum is understood as:
[…] synthesis of cultural elements (knowledge, values, customs, beliefs, habits) that establish a political-educational proposal aimed at generating meaning and sense for social life tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutoradoby different groups and social sectors whose interests are diverse and contradictory , although some tend to be dominant or hegemonic and others tend to oppose such domination or hegemony; this synthesis is achieved through various mechanisms of negotiation and social enforcement.
The school curriculum is a historical construction located in time and space, defining itself from the culture of a society. Different discourses about the curriculum are produced in different time and space.
The curriculum means intentionalities, diverse representations and can have effects both at school and outside. The intentionality of the curriculum does not always correspond to a vision of the world, of science, of society, of men and women that expresses significantly the full development of humanizing processes.
The concept of curriculum does not take place in a watertight way, it is not static. It is a questioned concept, redefined, reconceptualized in the face of the needs of a society in constant process of transformation.
This reconceptualization process is not merely an evolutionary, continuous way of better adapting the curriculum. The history of the curriculum must also be understood by its discontinuous and rupture character. This implies that different ideological and social groups’ positions cross the history of the curriculum, in the midst of struggles and conflicts, at a given moment, in a given society. It implies, tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado all, that the knowledge and knowledge legitimized at school, for example, characterize the strength of the groups that figure as dominant, of greater prestige. In this sense, Silva (2001, p. 8) highlights:
It would be necessary to recognize tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado that the central objective of a curriculum history is not simply to describe how school knowledge was organized in the past, just to demonstrate how it was different from the current situation. A perspective that sees knowledge embodied in the school curriculum as a social and cultural artifact can not stop at the static description of the past, but it should try to explain how this particular artifact came to be what it is, describing the social dynamics that shaped it from this perspective. form. It may be interesting to know what the mathematics curriculum was like at the end of the last century in Brazilian schools dedicated to the education of elites, for example. But it is even more interesting to know why this mathematics and not another, this way of organizing it in the curriculum and not another, this way of teaching it and not another, ended up being seen as valid and legitimate. This implies not seeing the curriculum as the result of a necessary social process of transmitting values, knowledge and skills, around which there is a general agreement, but as a process consisting of conflicts and struggles between different traditions and different social conceptions. This process is just as important as the result.
In a way, the school has failed to overcome the barriers imposed by academic curriculum culture that, historically perpetuates and reproduces the hegemonic parameters of socially accepted and legitimized knowledge, undermining and silencing minority cultural groups (even though they are patently part of the school reality) who end up imprisoned ideologically in the sense of a reaction.
Says Santomé (1995, p. 161) in speaking of the school culture, “the cultures and voices of minority social groups and / or marginalized who do not have significant power structures tend to be silenced, if not stereotypical and distorted, to cancel its possibilities reaction ”. Reflecting the silenced cultures / voices, the author draws attention to the opportunity for a democratic school and an emancipatory curriculum projector.
When it comes to listening to the silenced voices (whether of students, parents or teachers) in the school curriculum, attention is drawn to the fact that, since the school is a space for coexistence, the exercise of otherness cannot do without freedom of ideas, thoughts and the construction of knowledge itself, the contradictions and conflicts that embody and act daily in this space.
To understand the student’s voice is to deal with the human need to give life to the realm of symbols, language and gestures. The student’s voice is a desire, born from personal biography and sedimented history; it is the need to build and affirm oneself in a language capable of reconstructing private life and giving it meaning, as well as legitimizing tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado and confirming its existence in the world. Therefore, to silence a student’s voice and to deprive him of power (GIROUX; McLaren , 1995, p. 137).
In a fragmented and reductionist way, schools introduce themes related to silenced or denied cultures in the curriculum, reserving them for commemorative dates . These “tourist curricula” (SANTOMÉ, 1995) end up restricting and marginalizing specific modes of expression, stories, particular notions about race, class, religions, etc.
In this light, “an anti-marginalization curriculum is one in which silenced cultures are present every day of the academic year, in all academic tasks and teaching resources (Idem, p. 172)”. And this presupposes that the school seeks new ways to conceive and reframe the curriculum, above all, due to the need to recognize the polysemic character that constitutes it as an institution:
[…] we cannot consider it (the school) as a universal datum, with a single meaning, especially when it is previously defined by the system or by teachers. To say that the school is polysemic implies taking into account that its space, its times, its relations may be being signified in a different way, both by students and by teachers, depending on the culture and project of the different social groups in it (DAYRELL, 1996 , p. 144).
This polysemy recognizes the condition of the subjects in the relationships they establish with the social and material whole, as unfinished beings in the making of existence, of experiences, in the ways that inspire and challenge the understanding of reality. Of course, when the school assumes its polysemy, in its curriculum, it needs to promote spaces for dialogue, openness to the other in a democratic atmosphere, where also,
[…] the representations of gender, race, class, nation, contained in the curriculum must be subverted, deconstructed, disputed. It is through this process of contestation that the hegemonic identities constituted by the current regimes of representation can be destabilized and imploded. The curriculum will then be not just a representation regime, but a field of struggle for representation tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. The curriculum may, then, contain representations that tell stories very different from those woven by existing power relations (SILVA, 1995, p. 201).
These representations are intrinsically associated with the multi – intercultural character of the curriculum and need to be taken into account, since the representation is a process of producing social meanings emanating from different discourses. Representations are located in a complex field of dispute, so they translate values, truths and forms of power.
The curriculum has been a place for the dissemination of representations. So the question is worth asking: under what discourse and narrative has it been constructed and inspired? Who does he have the right to tell his story to? The configuration of the curriculum, in this way, goes through a political decision (SACRISTÁN, 1998). This decision will imply the maintenance or not of the dominant hegemony, of the valid and acceptable representations, of the values and behaviors formulated in the center of the culture. In this light, the curriculum is also an instrument of resistance and transformation of dominant socio-cultural patterns.
The school has revealed itself, and still reveals the incompatibility of its monocultural curriculum with social demands. Candau , when reflecting on the school culture crystallized in the school, points out that […] The predominant school culture in our schools is revealed as “plastered”, little permeable to the context in which it is inserted, to the cultural universes of children and young people and the multiculturalism of our societies (2000, p. 53). Thus, monoculturality in school practices and curricula has a marked presence and a political and ideological sense. Thus Grignon (1995, p. 182) maintains:
It can be said that the school spontaneously tends towards monoculturalism . Through the transmission, which remains socially very unequal, of knowledge of universal scope or pretension, it reduces the autonomy of popular cultures and converts the dominant culture into a reference culture, into a standard culture (GRIGNON, 1995, p. 182).
In other words, the breaking of these paradigms allegedly mobilized by the articulation of the social actors that make up the school represents an advance in the attempt to balance and modify the sedimented, fragmented structures of the curriculum that predominate in the school, especially because the public school, in particular, needs be thought of, built by the participation of the popular classes that use it. And participation has to do with human mediation, since for Bordenave (1989, p. 16) “[…] participation is not only an instrument for solving problems, but, above all, a fundamental human need”.
Participation in the educational field is constituted as a process that develops through actions intertwined with the political, therefore, it is not a concession process, but a requirement of social agents.
As a political practice, once participation is established, the multiple facets of hierarchization, bureaucratization, imposition and exclusion that involve school education are unveiled. Therefore, participation becomes a key element for processing transformations in the sense of horizontalize power relations, democratize decisions, in short, get to know the reality and representations that are inscribed in the school routine.
The recent educational reforms, in the curriculum field and reflected in the school culture, point to significant changes in terms of space and recognition given to cultural diversity. In the Brazilian context, the 1980s represented a milestone for approaches coined in cultural diversity, because in this decade, the country went through dense processes of redemocratization, where struggles in the social, political and cultural fields spurred organized civil and union movements, of a popular character , to the mobilization of claims it evoked for social justice.
However, the process of redemocratization in Brazil has substantially leveraged the debate around issues such as race, culture, cultural diversity, ethnicity, gender, etc tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. The debates were important instruments for generating proposals and ideas that were being assimilated into educational legislation.
In the 1988 Constitution, for example, new and important popular rights were foreseen, not being restricted to declarations of rights, whether individual or political, but it incorporated fundamental and relevant contemporary issues, among these issues the recognition of cultural diversity appears.
Under the 1988 Constitution, education is a right for all, a duty of the State and the family. Article 215 of the 1988 Constitution expresses the recognition, as a duty of the State, to guarantee “the full exercise of cultural rights and access to the sources of national culture, and will support the enhancement and dissemination of cultural manifestations”. It is also ensured, in this article, as a duty of the State to protect the “manifestations of popular, indigenous and Afro-Brazilian cultures, and those of other groups participating in the national civilizing process”. Subsequently, in the 1990s, the approval of LDBN 9394/96, a law that complements the Constitution of 88, prompted the recurrence of research that brings approaches with the most distinct approaches to cultural diversity in different social fields. LDBN 9394/96 states, in art. 1, that education is articulated, therefore, involves, among other elements, ‘cultural manifestations’.
The school, with the speeches and ideologies it produces, could profile itself not to maintain any kind of segregation or social inequality, but to autonomously, which is a complex challenge, to rediscover new ways of articulating culture with the curriculum, reinventing, thus, other possibilities of education as a social practice. The PCN ‘s (1997, p. 96-97) state:
[…] school education should consider the diversity of students as an essential element to be treated to improve the quality of teaching and learning. […] the school, when considering diversity, has maximum respect for differences – not praise for inequality. The differences are not obstacles to the fulfillment of the educational action; they can and should, therefore, be an enrichment factor tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. […] attention to diversity is a principle committed to equity, that is, with the right of all students to carry out the fundamental learning for their development and socialization.
The PCN ‘s recognize the school’s challenge in developing educational processes that discuss the issue of diversity and differences. However, it is important to highlight that the diversity of each ethnic-cultural and social group must be understood in view of the historicity and the movement of contradictions and relationships that constituted each group. In this sense that cultural diversity, in the context of the school, enables the actors who participate in it, the construction of a public space that expresses the recognition of racial, ethnic, gender plurality, etc. Where ethically the particulars can be respected, felt, represented, discussed, combined. According to Imbernón (2002, p. 82) “assuming diversity implies recognizing the right to difference as an educational and social enrichment”.
Social / ethnic / cultural diversity is evidenced as an innovative theoretical-epistemological contribution, perhaps, a very quick conceptual terrain. It is established as a field that illustrates the attempt to deal with the recognition of the multiple dimensions and the complexity of interactions between different cultural subjects, problematizing these differences in a sphere of permanent dialogue, as well as the possibilities of recognizing the exclusion of the other and the acceptance of otherness in the sense of an awareness in the Freirean perspective , that is, for Freire (1980, p.26) tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado the “awareness implies, therefore, that we surpass the spontaneous sphere of apprehension of reality, to arrive at a critical sphere in which the reality occurs as a knowable object and in which man assumes an epistemological position ”.
Diversity in schools has traditionally been treated by the prerogative of unilateral schooling that is configured as an epistemic-pedagogical block to face the difference that is made in the concreteness of daily life, between students and educators, educators and educators, ways of knowing and meaning, behaviors, habits and values etc.
A possible trap for diversity is that it is introduced only by the transmission of content in the classes of educational institutions as a simple informative reinforcement, integrated in the didactic methodology, but as a hollow knowledge, neither integrated nor applied. […] it is necessary to introduce diversity in the organization’s structures and thoroughly review the internal organization of educational institutions. In these, diversity cannot be understood as a simple action that facilitates the learning of students with different rhythms of maturity; it is not just the presentation of alternative teaching strategies to stimulate unmotivated students; it is not just the incorporation of the appropriate educational tools for each individual academic reality; attention to diversity must be understood as the acceptance of plural realities, as an ideology, as a way of seeing social reality defending democratic ideals and social justice tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.
However, it is questioned to what extent, in its feasibility in practice, educational action, in its multiple aspects, responds to the desires, desires and interests of an education that meets differences and that certainly forges changes in the focus given to school culture, given that the school is inserted in a socio-cultural context marked by inequalities and exclusions, including the schooling process itself? It is a challenge that imposes itself strongly. In this sense, diversity could not be integrated into the school by compensation.
Assuming diversity at school implies a transformation in the administrative, didactic-pedagogical and curricular scope that regulates the institution, that is, in a shared educational project in order to overcome obsolete, homogenizing discourses, forms of oppression and subordination, seeking with that communication is open and flexible, potentially democratic.
The basic premise of educational practice is no longer the transmission of a homogeneous culture, as it starts to accept other knowledge, other ways of looking at reality, including problematizing them and enabling democratic coexistence between different cultures and thus allowing interaction among them in a way that contributes to the formation of the subjects involved.
The confrontation with differences, through dialogue, contributes to the deconstruction of univocal models in the schooling process, reflecting on the valuation of social subjects and multiple and embodied subjectivities in different cultural manifestations. Therefore, thinking about the pedagogical relationship, from the perspective of a binary logic (man x woman, Indian x white, center x periphery, etc. ) (SILVA, 2000) suppresses the understanding of the complex and power relations that occur between each of the parties.
Therefore, dialogue is this human requirement so that the pedagogical relationship is not suppressed by binary logic. In this sense, the school curriculum could not be determined imposingly. Its set of contents cannot be deposited in students and students, disregarding their cultural capital, that is, those elements closely linked to the world that surrounds them, to the structural conditions, to the social nature of language (BAKHTIN, 2004). constitute. The curriculum should be presented as a moment of encounter, dialogue, confrontation, construction of the multiple identities that intersect at school. Dialogue, an indispensable tool for the production of the curriculum, in Freire’s view (2005, p. 91):
[…] it is an existential requirement tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. And, if it is the encounter in which the reflection and the action of its subjects addressed to the world to be transformed and humanized are solidarized, it cannot be reduced to an act of depositing ideas of one subject in the other, nor becoming simple exchange of ideas to be consumed of exchange . It is also not a controversial, warrior discussion between subjects who do not aspire to commit themselves to the pronunciation of the world, nor to seek the truth, but to impose theirs. Because it is against men who pronounce the world, should not be giving the rule of one to the other. It is an act of creation. That is why it cannot be a tricky instrument to use one subject to conquer the other. The conquest implicit in the dialogue is that of the world by the dialogical subjects, not that of the other. Conquest of the world for the liberation of men.
The dialogue is not restricted to conversations. It is more than that. The dialogue is understood as an exchange and reflection on what is said, it favors the subjects to be active in their learning. The dialogue assumes the ability to listen and the possibility of making new connections, calls for the undertaking of a school climate of tolerance, respect and trust. The school could not, therefore, have an antidialogical education , where there is no real communication between the subjects, where the word becomes the prerogative of privileged groups politically, economically or culturally, because otherwise it – the word – is reduced in dissertation, speech, monologue.
The curriculum in and for cultural diversity, among other things, is one of the paths that allow the approximation of the knowledge of the popular classes, their languages and representations. On the one hand, if the school operates in a system where the culture that identifies it is elitist, privileges are established for some and penalties for others, that is, inequalities are sanctioned. On the other hand, the school may choose to deconstruct the ingrained culture that promotes realities of failures, seeking to sustain and motivate problematic ideas and actions, forming consciences capable of combating inequalities, taking into account the differences in the fight against failure and exclusion , also confronting didactic-pedagogical situations, above all, with the purpose of neutralizing the structure of discrimination or symbolic segregation.
- 3 . The School Curriculum inserted in the cultural question: the need for new learning
The curriculum brings with it a totally complex definition, as well as a recent one, which ends up covering the cultural configuration. Thus, for a long time he presented political, pedagogical, administrative, didactic and economic techniques.
In this sense, Gimeno Sacristán (2001) portrays the need for an initial prudence, where the cultural nature is presented as a means capable of governing curricular practice or even of rationalizing it.
Thus, the curriculum represents an instrument of social selectivity, geared towards educational systems, following concrete interests and becoming strategic teaching goals, which must address both conflicts and interests, playing a different role.
In this sense, the relationship between curriculum and culture means that knowledge is not produced as a simple reproduction of class relations, but rather involves the production of culture, as well as a challenge that is directed towards the internal organization, totally explicit in the curricula. officers who end up producing meanings and identities.
Therefore, the curriculum ended up being formed by several approaches and perspectives. According to Sacristán (2001), the curriculum is divided into four areas:
- The social function, where society and school are analyzed;
- Educational project or plan that may be pretentious or real, formed by different aspects;
- The curriculum is viewed through formal and also material expression, and must present its own format;
- The curriculum should be seen as a fully practical field.
In this sense, the curriculum should bring with it the analysis of the instructional processes, clarifying the facts through the content now adopted. It is essential to study the practices to be developed during the cultural process, as well as interactions and communications.
The curriculum must realize the intrinsic social and cultural purposes of the school itself. Currently, it is necessary to organize and model all social and technical components, in order to model the relationships now established.
Therefore, pedagogical practice ends up being called teaching, where it seeks to stimulate student learning. Thus, in some cases the curriculum has totally different formats, aimed at producing different results, bringing to the fore content and specific form to achieve a given situation.
When analyzing the curricular theme, the school system and the special situation are intertwined, incorporating traditional practices and others that are necessary to meet the needs considered as special (GIMENO SACRISTÁN, 2001).
Thus, these contents and forms must be structured in the cultural, political, social and also school context , comprising all the implicit mechanisms that result in some pedagogical practices.
In this way, the selection of content occurs through culture, making it possible to implement the curriculum for specific specific teaching modalities, based on social adjustment.
Teaching is reflected in a process aimed at reflecting on relationships, extrapolating all individual conditions that may affect individuals in a unique way.
This process brings with it totally technical and scientific conceptions in the cultural context, which are based on the development and learning of the entire process now proposed.
The dominant discourse of modern pedagogy, mediated by the individualism inherent to the growing predominance of psychology in the treatment of pedagogical problems, highlighted the educational functions related to human development, based on the height of the status of childhood in modern society, which is not only a consequence of the development of psychological science. For this reason, the permanent cultural function of the school as an essential purpose has been neglected in many cases. Partly, perhaps, because it is a way of escaping the debate in which the true meaning of teaching is unmasked and appreciated; which is consistent with the dominant interests that underlie any educational project: to establish its ends as something given, which needs to be instrumented, but not discussed. (GIMENO SACRISTÁN, 2001, p. 19).
The means and the cultural contents are transmitted and must reflect all the choices made based on culture, especially in the values of dominant groups, where it seeks to enable the participation of individuals in society.
The degree of mastery of knowledge is determined through the development of the individual in conjunction with the cultural. Thus, the pedagogical tendencies end up reducing the curriculum to the techniques, no longer considering the phenomenon, as it does not manifest itself explicitly, gaining hidden meanings, resulting in the personal and cultural experiences of the subjects being formed being affected. away from the school space, reproducing their social identities.
When proposing the explanation of the curriculum, it ends up mentioning the contents, as well as, essential practices, which come to act implicitly or explicitly. In this way, pedagogical form is given to the contents, which act on the students and also pedagogues, shaping the practice.
In this way, the format of the curriculum is seen as an important tool, which ends up configuring the pedagogue, enabling its distribution. Thus, it is possible to say that the curricular contents refer to a basic recipient that is based on the students, and, therefore, directly affect pedagogues. (GIMENO SÁCRISTAN, 2001).
According to Forquin (1993), there is an intimate relationship between education and culture, since both complement each other, enabling the practice of teaching, where the real problems that occur in schools are faced, and the psychopedagogue must direct his attention.
In this way, cultural practice is considered as a portion of the curriculum, thus enabling assessment and content. It involves a kind of political, economic and administrative intertwining, which are governed by totally different propositions.
Thus, the curriculum must be seen as a field formed by processes of interaction between subjects and educational institutions, with the pedagogue being responsible for educational practices (FORQUIN, 1993).
CHAPTER II – METHODOLOGY
Science develops through the production of man, which is made up of interests and consequently supports his existence and trajectory. This practice that seeks to develop science is affected by some criteria, among them that knowledge must be built, analyzed and restructured based on the discoveries and their developments, allowing for their refutation.
This (science) is constituted as systematized knowledge, historically constructed by man to know reality, and it appears that the demands that encourage scientific production correspond to the needs of those who produce it or who are interested in that production. (OLIVEIRA; ENS; FREIRE; MUSSIS, 2003, p. 2)
Crystallized science is ineffective and leads to investment failures in knowledge production. Thus, as we have already announced, we adopted in this research the indications in the qualitative method. Bogdan and Biklen (1994) indicate that the term “qualitative research” was only used in studies from the social sciences after the 1960s. Previously the equivalent term was qualitative research , with some ways of providing information about the data.
The data collected is called qualitative, which means rich and descriptive details regarding people, places and conversations, and complex statistical treatment. The questions to be investigated are not established by the operationalization of variables, but are also formulated with the objective of investigating the phenomena in all their complexity. (BOGDAN; BIKLEN, 1994, p. 16, emphasis added)
Corroborating with our more far-reaching proposition on data analysis, we have the following statement “all data from reality are considered important. The researcher must, therefore, pay attention to the greatest possible number of elements present in the studied situation ”(LUDKE, 1986, p. 12). In this sense, our research included bibliographic review, document analysis, application of interviews and data analysis.
In order to consolidate our research, we tried to comply with the indications about the bibliographic review as a provider of discussions convenient to our research problem, which meant the expansion of the knowledge field as a researcher and in the composition of this academic production. Even so, during the research, the initial difficulty was to define what is really relevant “given the fact that the bibliography review must be at the service of the research problem, it is impossible, besides being undesirable, to offer models to be followed. ” (ALVES-MAZZOTTI; GEWANDSZAJDER, 1999, p. 179).
Producing knowledge requires collectivity with the academic community and, from there, aligning with the desired knowledge, analyzing the findings: the discoveries and contradictions in the theoretical-methodological field.
Today, many information networks, databases, libraries at universities and research centers around the world can be accessed by computer, via the internet. (ALVES-MAZZOTTI; GEWANDSZAJDER, 1999, p. 181)
In this observation, in order for our object of study to be understood, we seek discursive support in the most recent research in proximity to the theme.
The choice of documentary analysis was made because it proves to be essential in the incursion in some documents that address the Policies for Early Childhood Education. Corroborating our choice, given the myriad of documentary sources, Bardin (1977, p. 121) states that “the choice of documents depends on the objectives, or, conversely, the objective is only possible according to the available documents”. Determined the corpus  , their representativeness and relevance become essential:
While the exploration procedures , to which the so-called systematic (and in particular automatic) techniques may correspond, allow, from the texts themselves, to apprehend the links between the different variables, they work according to the deductive process and facilitate the construction of new hypotheses (BARDIN , 1977, p. 125, emphasis added).
Proceeding with the analysis of the records on the first public actions for Municipal Education in Recife, we adopted a chronological order of the historical and political memory of the municipality so that we could understand its essence. “The documents are a powerful source from which evidence can be drawn to substantiate the researcher’s claims and statements.” (LÜDKE, 1986, p. 39)
In addition to these specific documents about the municipality of Recife, we also work with national legislation. To this end, we seek to dedicate ourselves to the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, promulgated on October 5, 1988; the National Education Guidelines and Bases Law (LDBEN) No. 9,394 / 96; to Law 11.494 / 07, which establishes the Fund for the Maintenance and Development of Basic Education and the Valorization of Education Professionals (FUNDEB); to Law No. 10,172 / 01, of the National Education Plan (PNE) 2001-2010; and Law No. 13,005 / 14, of the National Education Plan (PNE), effective 2014-2024.
In search of historical evidence from Recife, we had access to documents with records of the first actions in the preschool, revealing statistical data on the number of schools, enrollment, dropout, initial and continuing teacher training. These documents are in the form of notebooks with the educational memory of the municipality, reports from deliberative bodies such as the Municipal Council of Education. In strengthening the educational support of Recife, we have the Organic Law of the municipality of Recife and the Municipal Education Plan (2015-2025). We have organized some documents in the table below:
In an attempt to analyze these records that point to the Public Policies of the municipality, without intending to exhaust them, we adopted some strategies that helped us to describe the relationship between Public Policy and its execution, experienced on the school floor. From this, in the choice of documentary sources, we follow the orientation that “triangulation practices can be considered as a characteristic of qualitative research” (FLICK, 2009, p. 58). To recognize this strategy, we initially try to highlight what does not fit this practice, in the use of methods that perform different functions, that is, one method for data collection and another for analysis, before the object of study is defined .
For our research, we rely on the perspective of triangulation over the methods used, “the author distinguishes two alternatives: triangulation within methods and between methods” (FLICK, 2009, p. 65 apud DENZIN, 1970, p. 308-310) .
This combination is relevant when the methods are critical and questionable about themselves, becoming theoretically significant and leading us to the research findings. However, Flick (2009), again supported by the studies carried out by Denzin (1970), who points out the setbacks when researching with more than one method, states that “the first and most obvious problem is to identify a common unit of observation in relation to to which several theories can be applied ”(FLICK, 2009, p. 66 apud DENZIN, 1970, p. 311-312).
In addition, there are other notes on the practice of data triangulation, “this triangulation allows the researcher to have a maximum theoretical yield using the same methods” (FLICK, 2009, p. 63). The suggestion goes through the observations of the same fact at different times, territories and characters and considers the relevance of some definitions during empirical research involving subjects.
The analysis of the documents applied in our research relied on the records of the first actions in municipal Early Childhood Education, as well as the alignment with the PME in force. This action allows us to reflect on the advances and difficulties at different times, considering that in the alignment of the contributions of the interviewed subjects, belonging to this context, we had the opportunity to confront the composition of the documents and the execution. To consolidate the triangulation of data relevant to our research, we try to follow some rules necessary for this action.
To capture the social reality, qualitative and quantitative methods are indicated. Subjective facts, objectives and attitudes must be collected. Observations in the present must be complemented by historical material. Non-evident observation of spontaneous life and planned and direct interviews should be applied. (FLICK, 2009, p. 58)
Strengthening the strategies in data collection, we also chose the direct, semi-structured interview, with five participants who make up the scenario of Municipal Early Childhood Education, justified in view of the legitimacy strength obtained in the data collection.
In qualitative research, interviews can be used in two ways. They can be the dominant strategy for data collection or they can be used in conjunction with participant observation, document analysis and other techniques. In all these situations, the interview is used to collect descriptive data in the subject’s own language, allowing the researcher to intuitively develop an idea about the way the subjects interpret aspects of the world. (BOGDAN; BIKLEN, 1994, p. 134)
The organization of the information collected in the interviews varies on each topic or on some questions, allowing the researcher to adapt to the defined theme.
Even when using a script, qualitative interviews offer the interviewer a considerable range of topics, which allows him to raise a number of topics and offer the subject the opportunity to shape their content. (BOGDAN; BIKLEN, 1994, p. 135)
There are no defined rules for the interview and this is due to the intensity and possibilities that are revealed during the process. And when we choose not to standardize them , leaving them semi-structured, we break with the rigidity, enabling adaptations. During this moment, it should be made clear to the interviewee what the subject discussed is, the interest, in addition to ensuring confidentiality about the revelations made. Still, there is a possibility of distrust and concealment of some facts during the narrative.
By establishing more spontaneous contact, closer and more personal knowledge and access to the most varied types of knowledge are allowed. This interview profile happens when the interviewee deals naturally with the subjects that he knows directly, especially the research object.
In semi-structured interviews, one is sure to obtain comparable data between the various subjects , although the opportunity to understand how the subjects themselves structure the topic in question is lost. (BOGDAN; BIKLEN, 1994, p. 135, emphasis added)
The relationship between the PME (2015-2025) and Early Childhood Education has advances and contradictions, so we consider that the selected subjects are an important source of information. In these choices, we observe the distinct and complementary positions they occupy in the education scenario in Recife. The five subjects interviewed have narratives, which enabled us to draw a brief overview of the past 30 years in municipal Early Childhood Education.
In the description of this context, we have subject A, who composed the militancy for municipal Early Childhood Education when it was still a project in Social Assistance, was active in the discussions during the Constituent of Women, around 1987, when feminist movements defended the importance of the daycare center, fought for the effectiveness of the teacher in the classroom of Early Childhood Education according to the advances of educational legislation and is currently a member of the Municipal Council of Education.
Subject B has worked in Early Childhood Education for 31 years, active in discussions and demands since the day care center did not belong to the Education Department, but as Social Assistance – Special Projects. Currently represents the Municipal Union of Teaching Professionals of the Official Teaching Network of Recife (SIMPERE), in the Municipal Council of Education.
Subject C, another teacher in early childhood education in the school system for about 30 years, is a representative of the Education Secretariat in regional and national discussions and a member of a forum and national movements in defense of early childhood education.
Subject D has been a regent teacher in municipal Early Childhood Education for about 4 years. It represents the new generation of teachers, who gradually take ownership of the changes achieved over time, indicating the most recent paths of municipal Early Childhood Education.
Subject E, a retired teacher, is a strong pillar in the history of municipal and state education. He acted directly in the first struggles of the municipality during the democratic reopening, in the articulated dialogue between the Municipal Secretariats and in defense of the communities, curiously on the government side, and is a constituent member of the National and State Education Council.
In this context, we had the opportunity to meet actors who make up the past and recent history of Municipal Early Childhood Education. Therefore, the immeasurable opportunity to analyze and discuss the impressions and opinions of each one highlighted that the essence of the Municipal Education Policy is found in the contributions of these subjects, from the militancy with the popular participation for the rights of education to the performance in the State and Municipal Education Councils and materialization in the classroom.
It is worth mentioning that we were aware that during this interaction, the interviewer may repeat some methodological vices, which limit his immersion in the investigated situation, by faithfully following the established methodological standards, and that, at this moment, there is a risk of despising or even make new discoveries impossible.
As useful as they may be to clarify this or that effect that the researcher can exert “without knowing it”, they almost always lack the essential, undoubtedly because they remain dominated by fidelity to old methodological principles that are frequently derived, such as standardization of procedures, the desire to imitate the most recognized exterior signs of the rigor of scientific disciplines. (BOURDIEU, 1997, p. 693)
Therefore, for this relationship between interviewer and interviewee to happen naturally, we strive for communication to be clear and objective, for this, we use strategies such as verbal and non-verbal language.
At this moment of exchange, there are aspects that make it possible to acquire a considerable collection of spontaneous information. Normally, the interviewee retraces the route experienced during the researched action and, according to the interviewer’s skill, is encouraged to narrate the most diverse details. This experience in fact provided a harmony between the different elements, in addition to the surprising findings.
The great advantage of the interview over other techniques is that it allows the immediate and current capture of the desired information, with virtually any type of informant and on the most varied topics. (LÜDKE, 1986, p. 34)
The contributions of the subjects who participated in the construction of the first actions for Public Policies for Early Childhood Education in the municipality were key, since their reports described the stages of the consolidation of Education as a child’s right, forged through discussions and struggles, with the participation and the representation of municipal management. The teacher of Early Childhood Education, working on the school floor, brought the experience on the implementation of the actions proposed in the PME – Recife, considering the necessary advances and changes. And the subjects that at the same time constitute the school floor and the deliberative bodies – Municipal Council, Secretariat of Education – brought the vision of strengthening Early Childhood Education from the perspective of the law.
These and other elements will be highlighted throughout the analysis of the interviews, revealing the merit of the choice of these subjects and the technique in data collection.
2.1 . Data analysis: the Content Analysis technique
In this work, we adopted content analysis as a form of analytical interpretation of the research findings.
The practice of analyzing content has existed since the 18th century, when hermeneutics was used by man to interpret and highlight phenomena, whether of a religious or mystical nature. With the advance of science in the twentieth century, it expanded as an interpretive analysis in the face of the growth of the American media. In addition, with the advent of World War II, there was a need to build studies on this activity.
But what is content analysis in fact? Our brief study describes that the starting point of content analysis must be directly related to the objectives proposed in the research. It is a technique of deepening documents that contain the main concepts and characteristics, soon becoming decisive. The strategy of analyzing the contents is defined as a procedure, and its essence is found in the message, be it in verbal language (written or oral), or imagery, forming the documents that make up the core of the research object.
Textual conditions that involve the historical evolution of humanity; the economic and socio-cultural situations in which the issuers are inserted, the access to linguistic codes, the degree of competence to know how to decode them, which results in verbal expressions (or messages) loaded with cognitive, affective, evaluative and historically changeable components. (FRANCO, 2005, p. 13)
The content analysis technique deals with what may not be said explicitly, so the researcher has the mission to address the most sensitive issues.
“The objective of all content analysis is to point out and classify in an exhaustive and objective way all the units of meaning existing in the text. ”(OLIVEIRA; ENS; FREIRE; MUSSIS, 2003, p. 06, emphasis added) Parallel to this, the theoretical / methodological positioning of the researcher will make the object of study understood under the description of its characteristics and the most important discoveries. relevant. The nature of the findings is different, so the indication of the relationship with the different sources converges to the deduction between who provides and who receives messages, which will build scientific production. Considering that decontextualized information does not add value, then the use of language and its meanings allow us to understand what is said or written in interviews or in documentary analysis, becoming an object for careful and dynamic analysis, considering the existence of coded messages.
The content analysis approach aims, from a set of partial but complementary techniques, to explain and systematize the content of the message and the meaning of that content, by means of logical and justified deductions, having as reference its origin (who issued) and the context of the message or the effects of that message. (OLIVEIRA; ENS; FREIRE; MUSSIS, 2003, p. 03)
Content analysis is composed of characteristics that demonstrate its proposition. Its intense communicative action requires a conceptual maturity that makes it possible to advance the proposed activity. The example of the principle that defines the use of the message in communication is in:
Every communication is composed of five basic elements: a source or emission; an encoding process that results in a message and uses a transmission channel; a receiver , or detector of the message, and its respective decoding process. (FRANCO, 2005, p. 20, emphasis added)
We, researchers, need to clearly define the reasons that justify the choice of certain content, considering that the messages will make a wide contribution in the construction of knowledge. When looking for inferences about the chosen material, we must discuss “the characteristics of the text; the causes and / or antecedents of the messages; and the effects of communication ”(FRANCO, 2005, p. 21).
Messages always have something to say, in great or lesser quantity, in addition to offering the characteristics of those who produce it, since the sender usually talks about what he knows and, mainly, to defend what he believes. The most pertinent considerations are guided by the analyst’s interest, stating that an incipient investigation does not offer sufficient knowledge for those who produce it. The possibilities of processing data found during content analysis in research in the field of Education are incalculable, given the multiplicity of contents and the most diverse interpretations.
Content analysis develops a formal framework for the systematization of qualitative attributes, and at the moment of interpreting the collected data, the intertwining of research in education with content analysis occurs. (OLIVEIRA; ENS; FREIRE; MUSSIS, 2003, p. 5)
Fidelity in complying with the stages of content analysis as an organized exercise will make sense of the research and allow the researcher to efficiently classify and define the registration units.
Unveiling new and often unexpected meanings of the document requires obedience to a certain number of steps, mastery of a certain number of techniques and tracing a path, which begins with the performance of qualitative operations and ends with the application of models statistical data. (OLIVEIRA; ENS; FREIRE; MUSSIS, 2003, p. 6)
In this research, we adopted the qualitative perspective and used some sources for analysis as we have already announced, which were some documents and as a source of data, the transcripts of interviews carried out with previously chosen subjects. In this movement, as already discussed, we opted for content analysis in order to understand the messages sent by the sources described above, belonging to our research.
The first stage consisted of establishing the registration units, which “is the smallest part of the content, whose occurrence is registered according to the categories raised” (FRANCO, 2005, p. 37), which can be constituted by the most varied elements: words , pronouns, phrases, characters, whether formal criteria exist or not. In this perspective of organization, we must consider the volume, the random facts and the variables and some limitations that are characterized in the development of the analysis. For our action, one of the possible options is the use of the word, even if it is the smallest particle, in oral or written form, even though it finds some limitations in relation to the volume of words found in the corpus of our data collection instruments. Another strategy adopted by the registration units is the theme, characterized as “an assertion on a given subject, it can be a simple sentence (subject and predicate), a set of them or a paragraph” (FRANCO, 2005, p. 39). Classification by theme, the most used technique, appropriates the use of the semantics “its delimitation is, therefore, a delicate task. The set of words, once defined by their semantic value, is also considered a theme ”(OLIVEIRA; ENS; FREIRE; MUSSIS, 2003, p. 8). Reiterating about our registration units, we chose the characters with different particularities, but with one or more similar and classifying characteristics, adding the common points that are essential to the research findings. When using interviews with defined characters, with the sum of attributes, we highlight the main characteristic of this collective: teaching professionals working or not in the Municipal Education Network of Recife, locus of our research, “this characterization, although it does not present additional limitations and / or difficulties, is indispensable for the contextualization of the data” (FRANCO, 2005, p. 40). The reason for choosing the three record units – the word, the theme and the characters – that constituted our content analysis is due to the fact that there is no justification or robustness in just a more insipient analysis of the data collected.
On the contrary, they can and should be combined, shared and interrelated to guarantee the possibility of carrying out broader analyzes and interpretations and that take into account the various instances of meaning and meaning implied in oral, written or symbolic communications. (FRANCO, 2005, p. 42)
In the composition of the registry units strategy, context units are indicated, adjusting the identification and description of the actors, who will give strength and meaning to the analysis proposals. In our research, this question fits in the city of Recife, the reference place of the analyzed documents and, as already mentioned, the place of professional activity of the interviewed subjects.
The context units are the broadest part of the content to be analyzed, however it is indispensable for the necessary analysis and interpretation of the texts to be decoded (both from the point of view of the sender and the receiver) and, mainly, so that it can be establish the necessary differentiation resulting from the concepts of ‘meaning’ and ‘sense’ which must be consistently respected, when analyzing and interpreting the available messages. (FRANCO, 2005, p. 43)
In the second stage, an analysis of the context is proposed in order to understand the messages embedded in the text and the main characteristics of each member of the speech. In order to facilitate the work in the context of the units of context, parallel to the units of registers, a repertoire should be organized that makes it possible to identify how they were conceived and developed and, from there, the social representation that is attributed to it, providing the broad knowledge of how express themselves and the context of experience.
2.2 . Analysis organization steps
After the first efforts to consolidate the strategies in the analysis of the content in our research, the organization of the analysis and definition of the categories is continued. The exploration techniques allow a systematization of the analysis procedures and, for this reason, it gives the possibility to establish the differences, similarities and deductions, because during the exploration possibilities of variations arise, building new hypotheses.
The initial procedure is in the pre-analysis , based on the organization, followed by the registration of the first impressions on the defined material. At this stage, the organization of some procedures is extremely important, “ the choice of documents to be submitted for analysis, the formulation of hypotheses and objectives and the development of indicators that support the final interpretation” (BARDIN, 1977, p. 121 , emphasis added), although they are interconnected, the procedures are independent and, consequently, there is no obligation to execute them in sequence.
We consider it pertinent to define, in our exercise, the presence of homogeneity in several aspects, guaranteeing the representativeness, similarities and objectives that the research proposes. This similarity in its various aspects is defended in:
The documents to be analyzed must be homogeneous. That is, they must obey precise criteria of choice and not present too much singularity that goes beyond the defined criteria and objectives. (FRANCO, 2005, p. 51)
In this context, the theme may arise explicitly or not, leading us to formulate hypotheses and reflect on the veracity of the facts found in our analysis material, using pre-analysis techniques , such as “the reference to the indexes and the elaboration of indicators ”(FRANCO, 2007, p. 54). The frequency of this differentiation when observed and perceived becomes an indispensable factor to compose a robust and meaningful analysis; for example, the more you talk about a topic, the more importance it will have.
After choosing the units to be used for analysis, it is time to define the analysis categories. One of its definitions is in “categorization is an operation of elements constituting a set, by differentiation followed by a grouping based on analogies, based on defined criteria” (FRANCO, 2005, p. 57). The categorization groups are composed of classificatory words that talk about their sense, meaning and the position occupied for their interpretation. This judicious action is of such importance, as it reinforces the relevance of the formulation of the categorical analysis and justifies its composition with robust elements, “this step is very important, because the quality of a content analysis has a dependence as its system of categories” (OLIVEIRA; ENS; FREIRE; MUSSIS, 2003, p. 9, emphasis added).
Considering that the categorization possibilities are wide, as long as they maintain fidelity to the object of study and the emergence of positive and negative factors, the alignment between the categories must consider the most structured ideas, which will support the message to be constructed in a consistent. In order to make the procedure more firm, Franco (2005) lists two possibilities of elaboration, the first of which deals with categories born a priori and described as “the categories and their respective indicators are predetermined according to the search for a specific response from the investigator” (FRANCO, 2005, p. 58). In any strategy, there are some obstacles, among them the risk of simplifying and fragmenting the findings, this applies to the quantification of terms and their frequency in the research. The second description deals with:
The categories that are not born a priori , described as a posteriori categories and come from “the speech”, the discourse, the content of the answers and imply a constant return and return of the analysis material to the theory. (FRANCO, 2005, p. 59, emphasis added)
Regarding the limits of content analysis, the researcher’s intuition and sensitivity regarding the treatment given to this process and the lack of rigor as a way to expand the discourse and incorporate other content have been understood . Still, care and methodological vigilance are needed.
In this chapter, we will present some data about the municipality of Recife, which carries a history permeated by struggles, resulting in advances and the recognized pioneering spirit in several fields of social policy, especially in municipal education. In a brief description of the historical context, we seek to rescue the first actions and strategies in the municipality in the formulation of Educational Policies.
Nowadays, we have brought the description of some more recent indexes on social, economic, geographic issues and the quantitative data of care in education. In continuity, we will approach elements of municipal legislation based on the Organic Law, indicating the treatment for education, including the restructuring of the Municipal Education Council and the formulation of Municipal Education Conferences (COMUDE), arriving at our main document: the Plan Municipal Education (PME).
2.3. Contextualizing the Early Childhood Education policy in the city of Recife
The field of our research is in the municipality of Recife, capital of the state of Pernambuco, which reaches the 21st century consolidated as a large metropolis. The data provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) deal with a territorial area of 218,435 km² and an estimated population of 1,633,697 people. Recife is divided into 6 Political Administrative Regions (RPA), grouping its 94 neighborhoods. Recife’s economic and social numbers according to GDP per capita , quantified in 2015, amount to R $ 29,701.32 and the Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI), in 2010, was 0.772.
As can be seen in the data above, the municipality of Recife has a large network of schools, serving an expressive number of students in kindergarten and elementary school. A few years ago, the results of the Basic Education Development Index (IDEB) reveal unsatisfactory results in Elementary Education, compared to national indices. The dimension of the municipality of Recife reflects the indispensable investments and actions to obtain positive results. This finding is corroborated when comparing the national average of 5.6 for the initial years of elementary school in municipal networks with that of 4.3 for the final years of elementary school. Therefore, it is understood that, for the advancement of Municipal Education, it is necessary that the goals and strategies put in the PME are indeed articulated.
Goal 7: Promote the quality of basic education in all stages and modalities, with an improvement in the school flow and guarantee of learning, enabling students to advance in relation to national performance standards.
Ratified in the following strategies:
7.7: guide the policies of the education network and systems, in order to seek to achieve the Ideb goals, reducing the difference between schools with the lowest indexes and the national goal, ensuring equity of learning and reducing the difference by half, until the last year of this SME’s effectiveness;
7.8: to establish, monitor and disseminate the pedagogical results of the indicators of the national system of evaluation of basic education and of Ideb every two years, and annually the results of the municipal system of evaluation of basic education;
7.9: contemplate the skills descriptors and matrices of Prova Brasil in the teaching curriculum; […]
7.22: establish policies to encourage schools that improve performance at Ideb, in order to value the merit of the teaching staff, the management and the school community.
One of the first strategies in our fieldwork consisted of collecting documents that would reveal a little about the history of education in the city, as we have already pointed out in the methodology of this research.
One of the first documents we had access to was the “Notebooks for improving the quality of teaching”, dated throughout the 1980s and 1990s, which deal with various elements in difficulty and alternatives for improving teaching. These documents show that efforts were made to improve the results of the education system, considering the fluctuations between repetition and dropout in elementary school, a very significant problem in the period in question. In a 1993 document, it is possible to highlight the following excerpt:
The municipal network of Recife has lived, in recent years, with the unacceptable rate of approximately 50% dropout and repetition in elementary school. Taking 1991 as an example, this fact represented, in a universe of 73,482 children, youth and adults, the loss of 32,341 students. (RECIFE, 1993, p. 11)
In view of these results, the subsequent actions were aimed at changes that would bring about an improvement in this situation, acting on the assistance and to guarantee the quality of teaching. In this research, we saw that, in the document entitled “Notebook for Improvement in the Quality of Teaching” (RECIFE, 1993), the municipality had among its objectives the improvement in the quality and improvement of the education system in Recife. Subsequently, documents and due deliberations were prepared, proposing an agreement with the Municipal Council of Education and other bodies belonging to the Municipality of Recife.
In one of the strategies, the Municipal Education Council of the City of Recife is restructured, composed of representatives from different segments of society, according to Art. 3, of Municipal Law No. 14,105 / 79:
Teachers Union of the State of Pernambuco, private education network / municipal network, Recife city hall, notorious knowledge and experience in Education, President of the Guararapes Foundation , parents and teachers and official education network.
In the analysis of one of the reports dated from October 1984 to June 1985, one of the meetings of the Municipal Council with the beginning of the works is described, with regard to the public policies that should be adopted in the municipality.
There is a report of studies carried out to enrich the members of the council, visits and other external activities and the elaboration of specific documents aimed at educational policies at the municipal level and for the functioning of schools (RECIFE, 1985, p. 1).
It appears that the CME starts to contribute more intensively to the Municipal Education Policy, described in important records in the documents entitled “Memory Notebooks”, in which it is possible to identify actions of this nature.
In another “Caderno de Memórias”, from 1986, we have a brief record of the organization of activities aimed at the continuing education of teachers, who, between April 1986 and November 1988, participated in the event “Teaching Course for Community School Teachers Recife and Olinda ”(RECIFE, 1986, p. 01). Subsequently, from June 15 to 17, 1988, an event took place at the Municipal School Reitor João Alfredo, at the Museum of the City of Recife and at the City Hall Auditorium, aimed at teachers from the 1st to the 4th grade, called “Cycles of debates on literacy in the context of Basic Education ”(RECIFE, 1988, p. 1). In the other reports with the records of the activities of the Municipal Education Council of the City of Recife, the studies carried out from March to December 1987 are described, where we have in item 6 “Document on the municipal preschool: political definition and curricular proposal ”(RECIFE, 1988, p. 4), indicating to be one of the first efforts to attend pre-school.
We also access the systematization of the proposals for the municipal pre-school policy in the “Caderno de Educação Municipal. The people speak, write … tell their story. A way to practice education ”, year 01, nº 2 (Recife, December / 1988). This notebook discusses the recognition of some aspects, that everything that is produced and ordered in society, concomitant with the results of research on schooling, which plays an important role in the development of children, whether through experiences in reading and writing, be it in raising awareness about the family’s survival conditions; which does not mean early schooling or controlling action, but a process of citizenship formation.
The preschool offered to children from the lower classes must make them , from an early age, acquire new forms of expression and recognition of their world, their development of mathematical logical thinking and the skills to reflect, deal with and transform the physical-social world therefore, its main objective is to favor the literacy process of these children. (RECIFE, 1988, p. 14)
The Organic Law of the Municipality, enacted on April 4, 1990, is a device that acts as a regulatory framework in the design of the municipality’s policy and has as its principles democracy, social justice and freedom, through the consent of the Federal Constitution and the will of the people of Recife.
Throughout its 27 years of existence, the Law was updated by Amendment No. 21/2007 authored by the Special Commission for the Review of the Organic Law in Recife, approved on July 3, 2007, in response to society’s demands. With regard to the Education Policy in the Municipal System, art. 6, item VI, the Teaching Policy takes new steps, maintaining the principle of “maintaining the technical and financial cooperation of the Union and the State, the Pre-school and Elementary Education programs”.
The “Title V – Urban Development and Municipal Public Policies” includes Chapter VI that legislates on the “Education Policy”, a guiding concept of our work highlighted in Art. 131, where the following determination remains:
Education, a right for all and the duty of the State and the family, will be promoted and encouraged by the Municipality in collaboration with the Union, the State of Pernambuco and society, aiming at the full development of the person, their preparation for the exercise of citizenship and their qualification for the job. (RECIFE, 1990)
This determination, branched from the Federal Constitution, expresses the intentionality of the municipality in matters of Education, contributing to modify political and economic conditions.
In continuation to Title V, art. 134th deals with the responsibility for guaranteeing attendance at daycare centers and pre-school:
The Municipality’s duty to education will be carried out by guaranteeing:
Item II – Pre-school daycare for children from 0 (zero) to 06 (six) years of age, on a full-time basis.
Subsequently, there was a change through the following amendment:
V – Assistance to students, daycare centers, elementary and early childhood education, vocational and special students through supplementary programs of didactic-pedagogical material, uniforms, food and health and transport assistance, through technical and financial assistance from the federal government and according to the Federal Constitution. (Wording given by the Amendment to Organic Law No. 21/2007)
Selecting this item to confront the Municipal Education Plan in force (2015-2025), we perceive the alignment with Article 2, item VIII, when discussing the application of resources resulting from taxes from revenue transfers, to provide the maintenance of Elementary and Early Childhood Education, indicating the maintenance of a principle already established by law in the municipality.
The Organic Law of Recife contains in Article 135 the regulation of the Municipal Education Council, composed of guidelines derived from the Master Plan for the Development of the City. Its configuration was composed of competencies that include the functioning of Municipal Education with popular participation and democratic management, as described by law.
Thus, the old council created in 1971, was reformulated through a bill drafted in a participatory manner by representatives of the most representative entities operating in the municipality: city council, technical staff of the Secretariat of Education, Association of Community School Educators,
Teachers’ unions, NGOs advising on Popular Education, Education Center of the Federal University, in addition to having a representative member of each regional education commission, to ensure the regional character of the Sectorial Education Policy. (RECIFE, 1994, p. 19)
In this initial period, discussions on the dynamics of educational policy in the city of Recife defined that “universal access, guaranteeing permanence, valuing the educator and democratizing management” were the main guiding axes of work. The discursive sequence of the teaching policy brought the perspective of construction and democratization of management when the first movements for its effectiveness occurred through guidance on the “participation of the various segments of society in the formulation and implementation of policies and quality control in results educational activities ”(RECIFE, 1993, p. 12).
The Organic Law of Recife provided another important step for municipal education through Law No. 15,547 / 91, which institutes the Master Plan for the Development of the City of Recife, determining the formulation of the 1st Municipal Education Conference, with its first conference in 1993.
COMUDE “constitutes a collegiate body for evaluating the performance of the municipality’s educational policy and proposing guidelines and goals for the municipal education system” (RECIFE, 1993, p. 17). This collegiate body is considered one of the most important to date, being composed of “entities representing society, the legislative and executive powers, teachers, civil servants and students from the municipal education network” (RECIFE, 1993, p. 17).
In this first conference, it was discussed about Instituent Pedagogy, the educational situation in the city of Recife, presenting statistical data on illiteracy in Brazil, Pernambuco and Recife, as well as the percentages of dropout and repetition in the years 1990 and 1991. In view of this a very unfavorable framework and aiming at improving the perspectives of the Educational Policy, the Department of Education and Culture carried out a planning, where it proposed changes by adhering to four pillars: democratization of access, guarantee of permanence, valorization of the educator and democratization of management.
In one of the revelations recorded in the interviews of this research, the essence of the Conference was portrayed, which indicates the presence of popular participation and Education recognized from the perspective of the law, as well as the realization that the legislation is not a watertight reference, but the inauguration of a new stage in municipal education.
Ah! very interesting … It followed the same style of participation, it was part of a participation policy, which had a conception of education as a right and, therefore, did not feel a slave to the current regulatory frameworks. I was always trying to take the current regulatory framework as a starting point, to go further and not comply with the way it is there. But as we had an understanding of the following: the struggle of society, of social movements. (Subject E)
We found in the scarce documents available the actions aimed at the day care center and preschool, with training, projects and debates indicating the association of Early Childhood Education with other sectors. According to the records contained in a leaflet built in 1993, by the Department of Education and Culture with the support of the Psychology team, this was aimed at adapting to the school environment, assigning children, parents and daycare educators as the first challenge. and describing the environment as a place to play, learn and develop.
The condition of exclusion of Early Childhood Education in the financing is evident in the II Mostra Trelar e Atrelar , of 1995, with the participation of the municipal day-care centers, organized by the Directorate-General of Special Programs, of the Day Care Department, using scrap as raw material . Even though the period is after the Federal Constitution, which is a legal framework for the recognition of Early Childhood Education, it comes up against Law No. 9,424 / 96 (FUNDEF), which excluded Early Childhood Education from financing. As a result, the evident difficulty in having resources.
Next, we find a record on Training for Nursery School Children, in 1995, with the trainee as the target audience in accessing the discussion about the internship policy in the network, the teaching policy and the history of the day care center. During this same period, the pedagogical coordinators received training on basic health knowledge. At other times, such as the “IV Recicreche – Once upon a time”, in 1996, a reflection on pedagogical practices was proposed, verifying the impact on training aimed at professionals in daycare and pre-school, but remaining with assistance characteristics.
In the post-LDB period, around 1997, still referred to as the Day Care Department and offered joint training between health agents and pedagogical coordinators, aiming to evaluate the health-related work that was carried out at the day care center. We observed that, little by little, the Municipal Education Secretariat adapts to the LDB, linking Early Childhood Education to the Education Secretariat.
In the findings about the following years, we have the Pedagogical Proposal: Building competences – 2001/2004 and the Pedagogical Proposal: Building competences – 2002, which discuss the curriculum matrix in a general way, without highlighting Early Childhood Education, pointing to the principles of training educational system of the municipal network, which aimed to train subjects with the capacity for dialogue and ethics in interpersonal relationships within and outside the school environment and reinforce learning in emotional, cognitive and social issues.
In another document, “Learning cycles and the school organization – 2001”, the question of the pedagogical organization of the municipal network in Recife is raised, transforming it into learning cycles, in order to understand that learning happens in different situations and contexts and, for each situation, several possibilities must be created, interconnected by the most diverse knowledge. This document also describes the option of the municipal network for learning cycles in Early Childhood Education, where the first cycle comprises the age group of 0 to 3 years and the second cycle, from 4 to 5 years. This was also reinforced in the text “Learning cycles: looks at practices in municipal schools”, from 2004.
In a document called “Quadrennial strategic plan – period 2005/2009”, one of the actions is the definition of the policy of access and permanence of students in different modalities, with the challenge of promoting visits to municipal and private schools of Early Childhood Education. Then, a diagnostic survey on the educational situation of the municipality refers to the outlines of municipal education, presenting the proposed goal for the attendance of Early Childhood Education, which separates the daycare center and the pre-school due to the age group. As a result, there is an expansion of the Early Childhood Education monitoring teams, the addition of daycare centers in projects and socializations, regulation of Municipal Early Childhood Education Centers (CMEIs) and the proposition of exhibitions with Early Childhood Education productions.
During this period, Municipal Decree No. 23,450, of February 13, 2008, for the adequacy of education systems, in compliance with the provisions of the Federal Constitution of 1988, of the Law of Directives and Bases, No. 9,394 / 96, of Law No. 8,069 / 90 – Statute of Children and Adolescents, in addition to resolutions CNE / CEB nº 01/1999 – Curricular Guidelines for Early Childhood Education, Opinion CNE / CEB nº 04, of February 16, 2000, and Resolutions CME / Recife nº 14 / 2004, which determines through the municipal education system, the creation of CMEIs, for the attendance of Early Childhood Education in the kindergarten and preschool model, in the age group from 0 to 5 years; sets the following determinations:
In the planning for the years 2007-2008, some actions remained, such as the increase of the monitoring teams, which proposed a reframing of Early Childhood Education, with the following actions: regulation and publication of CMEI Paulo Rosas in partnership with UFPE, reorganization of the function of daycare center / CMEI and the distribution of the duties of the Pedagogical Coordinator function; as well as challenges such as the project called Trelarte , composed of trainees attending groups IV and V of pre-school aged 4 years and 11 months and 5 years and 11 months, respectively.
The holding of the Municipal Conferences brought speeches to strengthen the Teaching Policy. For example, at the 6th COMUDE, held in 2007, the objective was to consolidate the actions and mechanisms of democratic management, with the goal of democracy, quality and social inclusion in a collective debate with members of society. The proposals for Early Childhood Education had the following highlights: monitoring this stage, transforming daycare centers into CMEI for children aged 0 to 5 years and 11 months, with the maintenance and expansion of daycare centers and the pre-school education stage, aimed at the growth and development of children by providing technical and pedagogical assistance, articulation with health agents, socialization of experiences in municipal and associated day care centers, as well as the construction / acquisition of new properties for existing day care centers and installation / maintenance of playgrounds in daycare centers, considering the economic condition and access of the communities.
The 7th COMUDE in 2009, whose theme was “Articulated construction of the national education system and National Education Plan”, proposed changes in the work methodology during the municipal conferences, when dealing with a base document, formulated by the MEC, which would later be sent to the 2010 National Education Conference.
The 8th COMUDE, held in August 2011, under the theme “Education in Motion: Construction of the Ten Year Education Plan”, discussed the priorities for Municipal Education through the Education Policy and what would be relevant goals and strategies for the National Education Plan. Education.
The 9th COMUDE, held in July 2013, discussed “The PNE in the articulation of the National Education System: everyone’s commitment to guarantee a quality education” and aimed at proposals for changes in the National Education Plan (PNE 2014-2024) , which was still pending approval by the National Congress.
These were later forwarded to the State Education Conference and then to the National Education Conference (CONAE).
The 10th COMUDE, held in May 2015, discussed the direction of the Municipal Education Policy in the subsequent 10 years, with the elaboration of a base text, which was voted on as a bill in the City Council, becoming the Municipal Education Plan from 2015 to 2025.
Its last edition, the 11th COMUDE, was held in March 2018, on the theme “The consolidation of the national education system and the education plan: monitoring, evaluation and proposition of policies to guarantee the right to social quality education, public, free and secular ”and counted on the participation of several segments of society in the discussion on the city’s proposals, which should be sent to the State Conference and, later, to the National Education Conference.
During this journey, some documents were prepared on the Municipal Education Policy and the Teaching Policy for Early Childhood Education, giving a new meaning to its exercise, in addition to bringing new perspectives. The municipal network produced, in partnership with its teachers and technical staff, the instrument “Education policy of the municipal network of Recife: subsidies for updating the curricular organization – Theoretical Foundations
Methodological ”(RECIFE, 2014), with democratic school, diversity, environment and technology as work axes, as well as the discussion about what knowledge to privilege at school, the evaluation, the teaching-learning processes and the organization of Basic Education in Recife. Early Childhood Education was also discussed with the publication of the “Education policy of the municipal teaching network of Recife – Early Childhood Education” (Recife, 2015), with the objective of integrating pedagogical practice with learning rights, considering the principles of historicity politics in the education network of Recife, based on solidarity, freedom, participation and social justice.
This document is organized into four chapters, where the first clarifies its structure; the second deals with the social history of early childhood education considering the world, national and regional context as a starting point for the regulatory framework; the third chapter discusses the principles of pedagogical practice, in line with philosophical concepts and indications for key elements in classroom practice; and the fourth discusses the diverse experiences and languages present in Early Childhood Education, the child and orality, written reading, also, in continuity, talks about the formation of new readers and the presence of Art and its diverse expressions, as well as the understanding of the environment, the logical-mathematical, the diversity and the valuation of differences, sexuality and the presence of technologies; in the fifth and last chapter, it discusses the curricular organization and early childhood education, dealing with the axes and the rights of learning, objectives, content / knowledge.
We have already identified that the numbers of education in Recife are superlative, currently the education network has 5,530 teachers, permanent and contracted, in or out of conduct. Of these, 4,880 in the Teacher I category and 650 in the category Professor II . Quantitative data for Early Childhood Education are 810 Teachers I and 751 Child Development Assistants (ADI’s). During the discussions on municipal Early Childhood Education, we observed the transition from assistentialist Early Childhood Education to the perspective of the right of the child, consolidated through the formulation of Public Policies and materialized in documents and in various actions. In temporal developments, significant advances are observed, although we recognize that there is still much to be done, but we must consider that the existence of debates and documents that guarantee this right is already a condition for actions to be carried out and subject to charges and inspection during the its execution, in the fights in defense of early childhood education, public and of quality.
CHAPTER III – RESULT
The Educational Policy in the municipality is described in the Municipal Education Plan, containing the identity and guidelines for the period 2015-2025. Its formulation went through some stages and the first one was the discussion of the proposals during the 10th Municipal Education Conference (COMUDE), held in May 2015, permeated by collective discussions between members representing different segments, in order to define the base text for the elaboration of the SME.
During the Conference, representatives were chosen for the commission, which constitutes the Municipal Education Forum, which is responsible for polishing the document and then forwarding it in the form of a bill to the City Council. The commission was also responsible for the monitoring and follow-up of the SME during the term. Subsequently, the bill went to the City Council for voting, being approved in session on June 22, 2015. The publication of Law No. 18,147 / 15 in the Official Gazette of the Municipality of Recife took place on June 23, 2015 2015, with a statement that it was decreed by the people of Recife and sanctioned by the municipal administration, on their behalf.
This publication had several challenges, under the justification that the text discussed in the assembly of the 10th COMUDE, was not the same text sanctioned in the City Council. Reiterated in the speech of one of the interviewees.
And it was not clear at this Commune that the PME was implemented, we would be linked to the national goals, and that we would have had to discuss related to that.
And it stayed … I think it stayed, as far as dispersed. And it turned out that in the end, the document that was written at Comude , was not the one that was implemented in the Municipal Education Plan. Although it is said that everything that was negotiated is there, it did happen in reality, so much so that it generated protest on voting day. It was voted out of the plenary session with the guidance of the withdrawing councilors, that the galleries were rejecting that vote, because even in the annex where the goals of the municipal education plan were described, it did not go through the municipal education council, we only had access to the menus , the beginning that we call the menu, the one that describes the law … That description. The attachment was not even seen by the city council of education, at the time it even generated a protest from the teachers ‘union, the employees’ union, university personnel to this type of implementation that was done for that, that is … The 10 days of discussion , run over or not from what was done at Comude , in fact it was not taken into account when the plan was put into effect. (subject B).
Given the description of the interviewed subject, where several mishaps were present , the PME – Recife (2015-2025) carries some advances, contradictions and challenges, exposed in 13 articles and in 20 goals and strategies, which propose the improvement of municipal education in the different teaching stages and modalities. Next, we will make some comments on the content of the document, in order to contextualize our discussion on Early Childhood Education.
For our object of study, Goal 1 is the most significant, so we chose to address it at the end of this item. Initially, we will make some observations about other goals that dialogue directly or transversely with our object.
Goal 2 deals with the universalization of Elementary Education from 9 (nine) years, reaching the population from 6 (six) to 14 (fourteen) years. While Goal 3 proposes to establish collaborative actions with the Union and the State to expand and universalize school attendance for the population aged 15 (fifteen) to 17 (seventeen) years, ensuring the increase in the enrollment rate in High School for 85% until the term of the plan.
The answer for the population from 4 (four) to 17 (seventeen) years with a disability or global developmental disorder, high ability / giftedness, is found in Goal 4, which proposes universal access with the collaboration of the state in entering Education Basic, preferably in the regular classroom, offering specialized educational assistance in guaranteeing inclusive school education. Next, we find Goal 5, in which a commitment was made to “literate all children, at most, up to the 3rd year of elementary school”. ( PMERecife , 2015-2025). As can be seen, the goals mentioned above deal directly or transversely with Early Childhood Education, revealing attention to this stage of Basic Education, whose constitutional responsibility lies with the municipality.
Another highlight in the PME is Goal 6, which deals with the expansion of the offer of Basic Education full time in at least 50% of the schools in the network, to at least 25% of the public served in Basic Education, as a way of expanding the study hours and the student’s permanence in the school environment; it also proposes quality assurance in teaching material and human resources, through financing with resources from public funds. In this excerpt, it can be understood that Integral Education is also a concern for students of Early Childhood Education, as this stage comprises Basic Education.
In Goal 7, we have the determination to universalize access and quality of basic education and its modalities, guaranteeing learning, which makes it possible to improve the school flow, having as reference the national standard. In compliance with the collaboration regime between the Union, states, municipalities and the Federal District, Goal 10 proposes to guarantee the offer of at least 25% of enrollments in youth and adult education, in the phases that correspond to Elementary and High School, being the latter linked to Professional Education.
Consequently, Goal 11 corresponds to an increase in the flow of students to Technical Vocational Education in collaboration with the Union and the state. Goals 13, 14 and 15, in compliance with Law No. 9,394 / 96, deal with the training of teachers, the increase in the number of masters and doctors in their teaching staff in effective activity, the increase in the supply of postgraduate enrollment and, in some cases, offering enrollment in undergraduate courses and also continuing education in their area of teaching in the education network. We understand the relevance of this goal, by proposing to guarantee the incentive for teacher training and its consequent appreciation. Another goal in wide prominence is number 19, which discusses the principle of Democratic Management, while valuing the technical quality and participation of the school community, enabling the use of resources and technical support from the Union. When reflecting on other goals that deal with intentionality of the Municipal Education Plan of Recife, observing Child Education, we have in Art. 2 the following guidelines:
VIII – which deals with “the establishment of goals for the application of public resources in education, resulting from tax revenue, including that derived from transfers, in the maintenance and development of basic education, early childhood education and inclusive education”.
The treatment of financial resources is set in Goal 20 of the PME of Recife, complying with the constitutionally defined percentage of 25% of the revenue resulting from the municipality’s taxes. In order to meet the goals established by the National Plan, a scale of 7% of the country’s GDP was established after the 5th year in which the PNE was in force, thus reaching an average of 10% of the GDP benchmark after the 10-year period.
Aligning ourselves with our object of study, we will return to the beginning of the document, highlighting Goal 1, which specifically discusses Early Childhood Education. From here, we will present this goal and discuss its strategies.
TARGET 1 : Universalize, by 2016, early childhood education for children aged 4 (four) to 5 (five) years of age and expand the offer of early childhood education in day care centers to meet 70% (seventy percent ) of the demand of children up to (three) years old until the end of the term of this SME. (RECIFE, 2015)
Composed of 21 strategies, which indicate the route and efforts of the municipal network during the ten years of the plan’s effectiveness, they are directed to care and expose the conceptions about Childhood and Early Childhood Education, their specificities, from the perspective of the right of the child . Given this scenario, we make some considerations about the highlighted strategies:
1.1) Define, in a collaborative regime between the Union, the States, the Federal District and the Municipalities, goals of expansion and organization of the respective public networks of Early Childhood Education according to a national quality standard compatible with local peculiarities.
Considering that the collaboration regime makes the municipality responsible for assistance in Early Childhood Education, Elementary Education and its modalities, Bordignon (2009) puts the scope of the Municipal Plan as a starting point, given the needs of its inhabitants. The perspective of dialogue with society highlights the peculiarities of local education and, consequently, makes it possible to meet them. To achieve this goal, an essential methodological tool is adopted: these are coordination commissions of a thematic nature.
Thematic chambers must represent the areas of activity of the Municipal Education System, including: Early Childhood Education, Elementary Education, Youth and Adult Education, Inclusive and Special Education, Rural Education, Education Professionals, Management and Financing and Collaboration Scheme ( High School, Professional and Higher Education). (BORDIGNON, 2009, p. 101)
This necessary articulation between the segments, based on the discussions, strengthens, directs and supervises the actions for the execution of the goals. The responsibility of the municipalities, under the collaboration regime, is for the establishment of a national standard of education, which counts on efforts to accommodate the needs of children. The highlighted strategy refers to this condition:
1.6) To improve the physical conditions of the Early Childhood Education units, equipping them with adequate furniture, and adapting them to include students with disabilities and global developmental disorders, ensuring the provision of quality school meals for all Early Childhood Education.
The improvement in the school space is one of the great challenges, considering that there are still daycare centers and preschools operating in improvised spaces, with routines crystallized in communities and families, revealing the remnants of welfare education. When proposing renovation of the school space, we observed a concern with the peculiarity of children and their basic needs to learn. In this movement, we include welcoming students with some type of disability, obeying national standards, in addition to offering quality lunches to children in development.
The strategy set out below deals with the continuing education of professionals involved in Early Childhood Education.
1.8) Promote the continuing education of professionals in Early Childhood Education, including the use of educational software, tools and technological interfaces, giving priority to network professionals as trainers.
Targeting continuing education for early childhood teachers to the use of technological inputs is relevant, since several technological tools can help the teacher’s work. The recommendation that trainers are professionals of the network brings a question about the training of teachers / educators with skills in this area.
However, a strategy focused on specific teacher education for Early Childhood Education is questioned, considering its particularities. In this study, we found the specific look of the municipal network for Early Childhood Education in the following strategy:
1.10) Preserve the specificities of early childhood education in the organization of school networks, ensuring the care of children from 0 (zero) to 5 (five) years in establishments that meet national quality parameters, and the articulation with the next school stage, aiming the entry of the student of 6 (six) years of age in elementary school.
Recognizing Early Childhood Education as a stage of human formation composed of specificities is still a great challenge. The zeal to follow the established rules strengthens the commitment to promote and guarantee the quality of care for children from 0 (zero) to 5 (five) years. Consequently, a necessary alignment with Elementary Education, also the responsibility of the municipality, consolidates the work in the initial stages of basic education.
Considering the importance of the close relationship between the family and the school, promoting joint work as a source of advances in care, for the well-being of children and the family, it is important to pay attention to the characteristics that distinguish the Care Policy from the assistentialism.
1.12) Promote and stimulate the school-family partnership, involving them in the activities of educational units, with a focus on the integral development of children up to 5 years of age, and the partnership with family health posts and reference centers of assistance follow-up.
Another strategy for Goal 1 is to promote the recognition and appreciation of the cultures that make up the basis of Brazilian education, strengthening and expanding their knowledge, together with teachers and representatives of these segments.
1.17) Maintain working groups in the Education Department responsible for monitoring and improving the policy of teaching Afro-Brazilian and indigenous history and culture, expanding the participation of education professionals, offering training and pedagogical material for early childhood education units.
Another strategy is to consider the specifics of our city, with its geographical, economic and social limits, without jeopardizing the formation of children or with possible losses.
1.19) Discipline, based on educational legislation, within the scope of the education system, the organization of pedagogical work including the adaptation of the school calendar according to the local reality and the climatic conditions of the region.
The necessary discussions among school professionals about the Political Pedagogical Project, in line with the Network’s Teaching Policy, including the needs of students, is an activity of a collective and democratic character. However, in the calendar of the researched school year, there is no period / dates for this purpose.
1.20) Schedule meetings in the calendar for the discussion and evaluation of the political pedagogical project by the professionals of the unit, observing the teaching policy and respecting the rights of students.
The recognition that Early Childhood Education is the stage responsible for the first human formations indicates that the concept of childhood present in the teaching policy of the municipal network presupposes holistic training.
1.21) Promote the development of the arts components and their languages (visual arts, dance, theater and music) environmental education and physical education in early childhood education.
This brief analysis of PME-Recife (2015-2025), based on Goal 1, its strategies for Early Childhood Education and the concept of childhood in the document, provided an opportunity to reflect on the demands of this stage of Basic Education. There is a favorable speech aimed at children, some elements point to a concern with the physical structure and with the initial and continuing training of teachers, using specific approaches with the disciplines of Arts, History, Portuguese Language etc.
In addition, we observed a commitment to the conditions of care in Early Childhood Education and its relationship with the learning cycle, showing the procedures for driving and staying in elementary school. Collaboration between the Union, the state and municipality, concern for people with special needs and the democratic management of schools are also present.
Continuing our research, we will seek to add primary data from interviews with the subjects already listed in the methodology of this work. This resource helped us to better understand our research object, since it brought us closer to reality via the subjectivity of those involved.
3.1 . Historical elements of the context of construction of the identity of Early Childhood Education in Recife – preamble for the formulation of the PME
The analysis of the data collected during the interviews, organized in the record units and in the context unit, was essential to understand the concept of childhood present in the PME – Recife. The construction of the document became an event to strengthen the educational identity of the municipality, forged through many struggles and conflicts, which made it possible to perpetuate the advances and desires fed by the subjects belonging to Education in the municipality of Recife. The interviewees’ reports took us beyond the PME formulation, as we revisited some elements of the history of municipal education to understand how we got here.
The contributions of the interviewees gave us the opportunity, even if briefly, to learn about the first discussions and actions aimed at municipal Early Childhood Education, including the achievement of autonomy, through a lot of struggle with the communities. Considering the initial path of elaborating the profile of municipal Early Childhood Education, we highlight the historical rescue carried out by one of our interviewees.
As described in the following excerpt:
To discuss Early Childhood Education or any other stage of Brazilian education and in Recife in that period of 1986, it is necessary to resume the changes that were happening in the conjuncture. The bionic mayor, replaced by the elected mayor, was democratically, and it was Jarbas Vasconcelos, who designed the entire government program for community participation. But in general what we observe is: where was the Early Childhood Education, which was an area that had a lot of support from the city hall in the communities. I suggest that in order to make any assessment of the policies of early childhood education in the Jarbas administrations, in both, you must bear in mind the articulation with the communities in the periphery, where a very strong bond was established between the city hall and the community schools, which most of them worked with children in this age group. If you observe the Organic Law, you will find there, even, something related to financing for these communities to work with early childhood education. (Subject E)
This report indicates the actions of the municipality at the end of the 1980s, during the democratic reopening, a period in which municipal Early Childhood Education was constituted with the active participation of communities, which had a strong influence on the care of children and the allocation of resources. In this period, the joint actions between the secretariats demonstrated articulation, without necessarily at that time having a document that indicated it was a Municipal Plan. Thus, we find some descriptions about the elaboration of documents, in the first actions for the elaboration of the Municipal Education Policy.
There was no such intense concern with the municipal plan, isn’t it interesting? Because? Because as they were articulated, policies were defined in programs that brought communities together, which also defined the set of priorities and within those priorities, how each policy was carried out. Then it guaranteed unity from the perspective of the law. So, what happens: health, education and other policies, they … We had a city plan and within the city plan you have, you can call it a plan … The education plan. But the education plan is not considered “that”, you know? And he is one of those responsible socially for a society founded on social justice. (Subject E)
It is understandable that, at that time, there was still no guidance from a National Education Plan and, consequently, it did not reverberate in the municipalities. What existed at the time were the work or government plans, drawn up by the management that was in charge of the city halls. Then, the promulgation of the Organic Law of the Municipality of Recife, on April 4, 1990, made it an instrument in the democratic reopening in Recife, when it discussed the directions of Education in Recife in a broad way, in the directive and deliberate action. Our research subjects who were part of this moment describe that the attendance to Early Childhood Education took place in an articulated manner between the Education and Social Assistance Secretariat and that, at that particular moment, they did not have formal instruments, with indications on the agenda of assistance. The actions of female activists for the recognition of childhood and early childhood education were also narrated , in a latent condition in contemporary society. The rise of feminist movements in the 1970s brought about changes in the actions of the public authorities.
It is precisely the mass entry of women into the labor market and the feminist movement that will demand daycare centers to share the education of their sons and daughters with society, linked to union and leftist movements. At first, in the 70s, the fight is for a daycare center for us women: “I have the right to work, study, date and be a mother. Without a nursery I won’t be able to enjoy them all ”. (FARIA, 2006, p. 284)
In the following decade, in 1980, the struggle for the legitimation of the day care center arose that was not restricted to the children of working women, but to all children: “it is not by chance that the decade of the child in the 1980s, is after the decade of women ”(FARIA, 2006, p. 282). The conduct of this process across the country was through the National Council for the Rights of Women (CNDM) and the State Council for the Condition of Women (CECF), which instituted the Urgent Nursery program .
The evolution of the feminist movement has given new perspectives to the growing world, having several subjects responsible for its expansion.
Today in the Western world we have the daycare center as a patrimony of feminism, the left and unionism of the 70s. Thus, with a completely different history from the school’s history, the daycare center is also a right to education. It consists of three actors: fathers and mothers, teachers and children. It articulates the right to education of young children with the labor law of their parents. (FARIA, 2006 p. 284).
In Brazil, during the transition between the dictatorial period and the political reopening, with the strong presence of assistance and hygiene in Early Childhood Education, we have the opportunity to analyze this transition from the perspective of a militant municipal teacher for 22 years.
Since the constituency in 87, 88 … I participated in the women’s constituency in 87, then we already signaled that the daycare had … Not the assistance aspect and coming to education and not only the children from private schools, but day care centers for working mothers also had Education (Secretaria de Educação). So my militancy in early childhood education has been since 87, since the Constituent of women. (Subject to)
The exposed fact is consistent with the changes in Brazilian society since the entry of women into the labor market, becoming part of the economy and consequently having representation in discussions about the direction of society, especially with regard to the education of their children. These experiences lived by another teacher are recorded in the following statement.
The question of … Daycare, then I will talk about 88 here, when I arrived at Early Childhood Education, which was this issue of the view of the withdrawal of [social] assistance and the view of the right child. This is not just a space because I need to work, but it is a space for citizenship, it is for you to encourage the child to be a citizen, it is to show that she is in here, she has a voice and then, when she says: “Ah, but child it has no autonomy ”. There is a debate in the academy regarding this. We don’t have it either, if we go and discuss some things, but if we say that we are working for this autonomous child, it is that child who is a citizen and has the space to leave her room and get here and come to tell what happened to me, because she thinks that the person who is there cannot intervene and thinks that there must be an outside person with another look to intervene. There, this is autonomy, which she knows is encouraged to seek out who can solve it. (Subject B)
The weakening of assistentialism occurred after the advent of LDB, nº 9.394 / 96, which organized the functioning of national education and, consequently, the changes in attendance at daycare and pre-school from the perspective of the law. Soon, discussions in the academic environment emerged as beacons for the parameters so that the condition of offering quality education existed in these environments.
From Law 9394/96, which establishes new guidelines and bases for national education, the care of children in daycare centers (up to 3 years old) and pre-schools (4 and 5 years old) constitutes early childhood education, level of integral education of basic education. This condition, at the same time that it breaks with the assistance tradition present in the area, requires a deepening of the debate about what would be the quality models for the collective education of young children. (OLIVEIRA, 2013, p. 35)
The continuity of the transition process is well placed in:
These are things we started to discuss, when we started back there, I was already 88 to discuss this exit from assistance and this entry into education. So we started to see this child at that level and it was this bias that we had been building over time, which was taken to the PME, which was already being worked on in the other COMUDEs , in the construction of education as a whole in the city of Recife. (Subject B)
The changes brought about during the transition from education as assistance to education in the perspective of the law brought debates permeated by disputes and tensions and especially the challenge to reorganize Early Childhood Education so that it had the guarantee of supply and quality. In this excerpt of the interview, it was revealed that the concept of Early Childhood Education has been building over the years in different spaces, such as COMUDE, and materialized in Public Policies, such as the PME. Considering the democratic progress, it is interesting to emphasize how these actions were carried out on the floor of daycare centers and pre-school, through the reports of one of the teachers who experienced this period.
When I joined the network, I went to kindergarten. I went to a daycare, okay ? Only the daycare centers in that period, some were under the responsibility of social assistance and others were in education, but not in the board of education. I was on the special programs board, so I’m from that time on the network. We had a movement asking for the effectiveness of the teacher in Early Childhood Education, because the teacher in Early Childhood Education … Because in LDB it had already signaled, you know … Early Childhood Education in education. Get out of the scope of assistance and come to education. (Subject to)
The right of the child in quality public early childhood education is a recent development, not only in Brazilian legislation but also in the global context. Taking as a reference, some countries organize their education systems according to their peculiarities. As a result, it became necessary to adapt to social, economic conditions and political positioning.
Early childhood education systems in different countries differ as to the percentage of children served in the different age groups that compose it, the levels of investments made, the pedagogical principles defended, the educational objectives proposed, the forms of organization of the classes, spaces, schedules and daily activities of adults and children in each institution (OLIVEIRA, 2013, p. 36).
In another experience report, we have the pioneering spirit of the municipality of Recife, in adapting to what was established by law.
When I went to early childhood education, I was … I already had a teacher. Recife already had teachers working in early childhood education. But it was not a reality … It was not a reality for all municipalities, because there was no requirement that I be a teacher, although, for example, when I went to the daycare, I went in 98 … 97/98, already it had been post-LDB, which said that I had to be a teacher, but there were municipalities that I didn’t have. So, Recife, we put ourselves in a privileged position, because we had this understanding and had a teacher, but so it depended a lot on management, on understanding. (Subject C)
In the Federal Constitution (1988), education appears as a right for all and an obligation of the State and the family and contains political positions in its formulation. Records from a recent historical context demonstrate that amateurism and improvisation were – and why not say they are still? – in some environments. This retrograde conception that daycare and pre-school are smaller spaces, only for the custody of children, historically promotes debates consisting of disputes and tensions.
The existing conceptions about Early Childhood Education have their own political weight, since family members, educators, public policy makers and other adults have different expectations about the specific abilities of each child and set antagonistic goals in relation to what they should achieve – expectations and goals strongly conditioned by the social class of the population served. (OLIVEIRA, 2013, p. 37)
In Recife, the demands for attendance to Early Childhood Education have been expanded in the course of society’s advances, and the condition of the municipality’s accountability for the offer and guarantee has brought the practice of promoting debates between the various segments on the directions of municipal education. The definition of the profile of the educational policy of Recife has records made by the people who actively contributed to this discussion and which bring the political strategies of the municipality as a background. In the following statement, we identified elements that present the contours of the Municipal Policy for Early Childhood Education.
The City Hall Program in the Neighborhoods , where before developing policy guidelines, he listened to communities. So community schools came up and had representation within the management and received funding, it even influenced the Organic Law, I don’t know if it changed more recently, but there were some of the articles in the Organic Law, at the time it was drafted. So, Early Childhood Education understood what was offered in schools, what was provided through schools and day care centers and also a broad service to communities through the community school movement , which at that time had several teachers. He had the support of the Archdiocese of Olinda and Recife, worked together with the Archdiocese of Olinda and Recife and worked together with the city government. But the educational policies for Early Childhood Education, it was not just the schools, they were … If you take a look at the guidelines of the time, you will notice that the population was heard, they integrated the care with the same respect and responsibility that was done through community schools. (Subject E)
Given the above, it is clear that the actions were aimed at communities, demonstrating the popular structure and prevailing the articulation between different bodies.
The records of the period in relief reveal the actions of the City of Recife together with the Archdiocese of Olinda and Recife for the commitment of the Archbishop of the time, Dom Helder Câmara, who preached social justice, solidarity and equality as a pedagogical activity among the poorest . At the time, there was a movement called Meeting of brothers , for the dissemination of popular education.
The testimony of those who participated in this beautiful adventure confirms the harmony that exists between the thought of Dom Helder and that of Paulo Freire. Both, anchored in the courage to face the instituted and to propose changes in the horizon of a solidary society, recognized in education one of the main processes of unveiling the truth and understanding social transformations. (SOARES, 2002, p. 17).
The presence of Popular Education in the actions defended by Paulo Freire and embraced by the Archdiocese was decisive in the political and social moment that was happening in the city.
An important aspect that has existed here since its origins is Early Childhood Education as it was dealt with in the administration of 85, 86, 87 and 88, three years, due to the election that was outside the period of 4 years, which was the replacement of the mayors, as democracy progressed in the country. Is that there was a management that brought together representatives of communities and institutions in general and together defined common policy guidelines, right? So it was not the education policy, it was not isolated from other policies, no. It was along with other policies, in such a way that the Secretary of Education, the Secretary of Health, the Secretary of Social Action sat down and, together, they defined the priorities with the community and, later, also discussed with the community how to make those priorities possible with each of the communities, articulating the set of policies. So it wasn’t a patchwork, nor was it fragmented. (Subject E)
This report highlights the actions of the Recife City Hall, which were jointly managed by the various Secretariats. This finding, achieved in our data collection, indicates that this practice was experienced during the period of democratic renewal, given the possibility of direct choice of the mayor. In the testimonies of the interviewees who have been and / or are part of Early Childhood Education in the last thirty years, the transition from education as assistance to education as a right was described, in line with the promulgation of the Municipal Organic Law in the 1990s. It is understood that, upon acquiring public law status, post of the Federal Constitution of 1988, the secretariats gradually assumed autonomy observing their specificities. The historical path of the municipality, including the conception of childhood and Early Childhood Education, brought several movements, including the municipal government, adding achievements in the educational identity of Recife. Recognition of the municipality’s pioneering spirit in past actions should occupy a prominent place in discussions on municipal Early Childhood Education. Although the municipality of Recife has suffered external influences over time, its actions are still a parameter for other municipalities in the Metropolitan Region and other locations. One of these references is in the collective discussion with the collegiate bodies, gathered in an assembly, to decide on the actions of the municipality, materialized in the Municipal Education Plan, which constitutes a State Policy.
3.2 . The construction of the PME: the experience of Recife and early childhood education
The interviews allowed us to retrace the construction of the PME – Recife from the perspective of the participating subjects, in addition to providing us with the opportunity to identify revealing data on the elements that constitute the concept of childhood and early childhood education. To elaborate a more critical analysis of the relationship between the current SME and childhood, we have as reference the Education Policy of the municipal network for Early Childhood Education – Recife, 2015, in force, structured by the following parts: Child, learning and development: perspectives and approaches; Educating / caring: inseparable aspects of pedagogical action; Curriculum in Early Childhood Education: playfulness and interaction as guiding axes in the daily routine of Early Childhood Education; Project pedagogy; Organization of educational time and space; Evaluation in early childhood education: family, early childhood education professionals and the Continuing Education Process.
For the year 2018, we have the document “Continuing Education of Teachers of the Municipal Education Network of Recife – Planning of Actions / 2018”, formulated by the Educator Training School of Recife Professor Paulo Freire (EFER). Its structure is described as a result of dialogues, consultations and evaluations in line with the network’s Training Policy, verified in inquiries made with teachers in the previous year. This action of listening to teachers is aimed at improving the teaching and learning processes and guaranteeing the learning rights of Basic Education students in the education network. This document adopted some strategies, among them, the use of instruments such as forms, printed and virtual, and discussion forums on the evaluations and proposals for the Training Policy, which indicated the teachers’ value judgment on the network’s continued training education.
It is described that, in the research with the teachers of Early Childhood Education, some themes were listed, which they defined as quite pertinent to work in the classroom. It was determined that knowledge about literacy and literacy, toys and games and musicalization should be expanded, in the form of workshops, socialization of experiences, as well as the opportunity to get involved in discussions inside and outside the network, constituting the exchange of knowledge .
Thus, the structure of training for professionals working in the segment of Early Childhood Education for 2018 considers the above exposed data obtained from the evaluation instruments applied in 2017; the insertion of Early Childhood Education (Group IV / V in the National Pact for Literacy at the Right Age (PNAIC); the Curriculum Matrix for Early Childhood Education Policy of RMER and the National Curriculum Guidelines for Early Childhood Education (DCNEI). the discussions guiding the training courses for 2018 will be, in the first semester, the themes: Neuroscience and child development ( from nursery to group III ), Curriculum and Language in Early Childhood Education ( Group IV / V ), and, in the second semester: Childhood and language ( from nursery to Group III ), Neuroscience and child development ( Group IV / V ). (RECIFE, 2018, p. 03)
These notes reveal a concern of the municipal network to demarcate an updated concept of childhood with the contributions of teachers who are on the floor of day care centers and preschool, revealed in the options of the Municipal Education Policy and materialized in the Teacher Training Policies. We also seek to observe this practice in the construction of the PME – Recife. The changes that took place in society brought about changes in the conception of childhood, including the childhood industry, through the various strategies of the capitalist world. In this study, we try to make our conception about childhood clear, we defend that the child is not a miniature adult, being composed of emotional and psychological specificities, with its autonomy and its different social contexts.
The 17th and 18th centuries, which witness these profound changes in society, constitute the historical period when the modern idea of childhood crystallizes definitively, assuming a distinctive character and constituting itself as a reference for a human group that is not characterized by imperfection , incompleteness or miniaturization of the adult, but by a specific phase of human development. (SARMENTO, 2007, p. 28)
Western modernity produced ways of thinking about childhood, supported by the culture in which the child belongs, without a universal standard, and considering that these specificities must be observed in the teaching and learning process, in order to favor interaction with the child. environment in which you are a part.
Before entering the construction of the PME – Recife, we need to make a preamble of understanding the construction process at the national level. The National Education Plan determined, from the date of its publication, that the municipalities had a period of one year for the construction of their plans. To guide this activity, the Ministry of Education instituted the document “Municipal Education Plan: guidance book – BRAZIL, 2014”, indicating five steps for the preparation of the local document:
1) Verify if the municipality has norms, documents or legislation that determine the orientation or construction of the SME, in addition to the Education Secretariat, and of some category such as the Council or Municipal Education Forum.
In the absence of these instances, an organizing committee should be set up, with members of the Education Secretariat and representatives of the different segments of society (university, parents of students, Education Secretariat and the legislative branch of the municipality).
Then, to strengthen the process, the organizing committee must count on the contribution of a qualified technical team, who will be responsible for carrying out a study on the educational conditions of the municipality. Subsequently, the construction of a draft for a base document must be made, which must be debated and validated by the responsible body before disclosure and debate with society. In the event that the organizing committee is responsible for validating and leading the document, this action must be legitimized by legal sanction from the municipality, through ordinances, decrees or regulations published in the Official Gazette. Once the organizing committee and the technical team are established, they must systematize the schedule for carrying out the activities, followed up to the sanction of the municipality’s executive power.
2) Prepare a base document, built by the technical team, in line with the PME model, which will be validated by the organizing committee, to be submitted by it to the plenary meetings with society.
In this referral, they must contain some decisive topics, such as a solid description of the municipality, the circumstances of supply and quality of Basic Education, including its modalities, and of Higher Education. The language must contemplate the diverse readers and the document must contain the disclosure of the needs of the municipality and the political, technical and financial difficulties, parallel to improvement projects in the other social areas of the municipality and, consequently, of better living conditions for the population. The SME must be linked to the PNE and the PEE , elaborating a diagnosis on the priorities and the capacity to serve the population.
In response to the study, explain the reference for the monitoring and evaluation of this Public Policy at the end of its term. For such a mission, you must indicate which body will be responsible for this responsibility and the period evaluated. Should have the joint efforts of the Education Secretariat, Council or Education Forum and, if necessary, the City Council. The measurement of results provides clarity to the population and management of the document, as well as the preparation to manage the formulation of new documents.
3) Provide an extensive debate led by the principles of democratic management with respect to the plurality of ideas, responsibility and effective action of those involved with educational issues.
The base document should be discussed publicly through public consultations using tools, such as newspapers, radio, TV, internet, as well as civil society representations, such as residents, sports, religious and cultural associations and non-governmental bodies, such as unions, student unions. , class bodies. There must be political representation, through the legislative branch, and universities and research institutes, as well as the representativeness of artistic and cultural manifestations as a means of dissemination and call for participation. The systematization of discussions in stages, in neighborhoods and regions, will provide subsidies to improve the base document.
4) The drafting of the base document must be revised in the light of its feasibility and suitability to needs, and then forwarded to the organizing committee for validation. Then it will be assigned to the Executive Branch, which will be responsible for sending it as a bill for analysis by the municipal Legislative Branch. Also as a bill, it should contain a summary with identification of the choice of guidelines, period and means of monitoring and evaluation.
5) During the period when the bill is being processed, follow-up is still the responsibility of the organizing committee.
The Legislative Branch of the municipality must provide public hearings and assemblies for the discussion of some fronts, and must count on the community and the mobilization of the organizing committee. The referral of the document to the municipal Executive Power for sanction is subject to vetoes, and the organizing committee must be aware of the necessary changes in the shortest time, ensuring alignment with the demands presented by society.
Some researchers were concerned with analyzing the construction of SMEs in other municipalities, with regard to the term, financial limitations and other elements that could interfere in the process. Cavalcanti (2018) promoted a research in two municipalities in the Metropolitan Region of Recife: Araçoiaba and Ipojuca. The researcher describes that the municipality of Araçoiaba completed the elaboration of the document within the stipulated period, however the research revealed limitations in the construction of the PME – Araçoiaba, specifically, for the time considered short, as well as worrying results in the approval and retention rates.
On the topic of the municipality of Ipojuca, Cavalcanti (2018) collected revealing data about the document construction process. The subjects involved in the research stated that there was a movement in the local Executive Branch and little openness for discussions and, for some involved, these reasons were difficult in the debates about the PME, resulting in the insipience of the document. However, other data on the elaboration of the SME in the municipality show good rates of attendance in Basic Education, even pointing to disarray in the grade-age in Elementary School. Compliance with the 1-year deadline, stipulated in the National Education Plan, for municipalities to organize themselves comes up against a series of obstacles that do not agree with the agility imposed by the MEC.
In fact, the construction or adaptation of plans is something that would need a reasonable time for all stages of the process to be contemplated with quality, however this time stipulated in the PNE, as foreseen in the guidance book, was short and for the municipalities surveyed , it was not enough. (CAVALCANTI, 2018, p. 73)
This problem was not limited to smaller municipalities or with less technical structure, as is the case of Araçoiaba and Ipojuca, it also extended to the municipality of Recife, capital of the state of Pernambuco, as we will see later.
And this problem with the time for the elaboration of the SME is a national issue, since we are a country that is composed of more than 5000 municipalities and the law of the PNE obliged the elaboration of all the SMEs in that period of one year. We know that a good number of Brazilian municipalities lack specialized technical personnel to carry out this type of activity. As well as we can infer other technical and political problems that may have interfered in this task, as happened in Ipojuca, for example. (CAVALCANTI, 2018, p. 75)
Resuming our theme on the PME – Recife, we remember that we are willing to know and analyze the concept of childhood in the documents dealing with Early Childhood Education in the municipality, through the alignment between the Teaching Policy for Early Childhood Education and the Municipal Education Plan . This relationship imposes a responsibility contract with the children’s needs, considering their autonomy and vulnerability in everyday situations. Anyway, similar to other experiences, the construction of the PME in Recife did not happen without conflicts. Affirmed in the following passage:
I think that in the construction of the Municipal Education Plan there were several flaws, I think that there was no time for debate, there was a lack of clarification and it ended up when COMUDE was called to elaborate the municipal education plan. It was not quite clear what that COMUDE would come from and it ended up becoming … The discussion ended up becoming a broad negotiating agenda, since we were coming from other COMUDEs trying to implement, implement, negotiate improvements for the city of Recife, for education in Recife. (Subject B)
As described in this statement, there was not enough time for the debate, that is, the indication is that the process took place in a light and unplanned manner. However, it is possible to see the contribution of COMUDE, which exercised its role as a collegiate body. The records of the latest Education Conferences point to discussions about improving quality in teaching, in addition to indications for national conferences.
The proposal to discuss and elaborate a document guiding municipal actions in the next ten years, with characteristics of a State Policy, makes it clear that there was an imbalance in the distribution of the stages.
As an operating instrument of the Municipal Education System (SME), the PME establishes policies and guidelines and defines the municipality’s educational objectives and goals for a ten-year period. The elaboration of the plan must constitute a process of training, learning about the reality of the municipality, the concept of education that inspires action, the objectives of the action and the very reason for being and acting of each participant. (BORDIGNON, 2009, p. 96)
The dynamics in the elaboration of this document must contain a structured planning and elements that consider the municipal context and its main educational needs.
The objective of educational planning is to reflect on the educational reality that we have to transform it and promote the citizen education that we dream of. The assumption is that we want to improve the education we have and, for that, we reflect on reality and on what to do to change it. (BORDIGNON, 2009 p. 89)
Affirmations of subjects involved point superficially to discussions about the specificities of Early Childhood Education in the elaboration of the PME. The impression is that the conduct of the process brings marks of the recent recognition of Early Childhood Education, accustomed to improvisations .
Yes … see … there is a huge chapter, Goal 1, which points out that the Law is mandatory, as I told you, from 96, but I still find these proportions of small numbers, you know … it’s still very shy the service, it is as if the obligation was only with the Elementary School. I still see a lot of insipience, the demand is much higher, and then nobody wants to invest … So I still find the data, the percentages that the plan charges, very insipient. And the justification for this is that there are municipalities that do not have any daycare centers yet. Then she won’t ask for everything at once, because this discussion about early childhood education as a child’s right is new. (Subject to)
Bordignon (2009) argues that the elaboration of a Municipal Education Plan requires articulated actions and with well-defined objectives. Several questions must exist during the elaboration, in the order of the structural / diagnostic analysis, such as: how we think about education and the route that involves the policies and guidelines in the consolidation of the objectives and goals.
When questioning the construction of the plan, we found elements that revealed the tensions that occur when proposing assemblies with wide participation.
When building the plan here in Recife, a Municipal Education Conference was held to build the plan. When we discuss anything about planning for education, if you are going to involve teachers, managers and some other people also from outside, in the case of a Conference … for the experiences we have here, for the spaces we go to , there is always a concern like that, much more focused on improving spaces, infrastructure. If there are people involved who are not from the Department of Education, there is a charge for more vacancies, which is something that happens. Now, from teachers, it is still a very strong trend, to be demanding the valorization of teachers in this space. (Subject C)
The description made by our interviewed subject highlights the latent discussion of the routine of care, the working conditions on the school floor, the universalization not achieved and the teacher training, which is often responsible for school failure. They are permanent issues in the day-to-day education, and the actors that are part of the political process tend to seek improvement in the areas that most affect them. The above record points to questions posed by teachers, parents, students and other actors that make up the public education scenario, tending to highlight problems in infrastructure, the lack of vacancies and the appreciation of teaching.
Bordignon (2009) deals with the foundation in the elaboration of a Municipal Plan and affirms that the management objective must be indicated, including the actions, strategies, available resources, the disposition of the participants and the efforts to achieve quality improvement citizens’ education, and consider the set of knowledge about policies, objectives, goals, strategies, indices. The author expands his discussion by indicating the references to the municipalities for the success of a Municipal Plan, considering the accountability imposed by the collaboration regime, the demands in “meeting the different stages and modalities of teaching in the municipal network, the management and financing processes” . Managed in the articulation between the states and municipalities, “it stands out in this field, among others, but in a special way, the training of education professionals for the Municipal Education System” (BORDIGNON, 2009, p. 100). In the continuity of the debate, the subjects involved point out some aspects that go from the very constitution of Early Childhood Education as a right to the repercussion of this for the construction of the PME – Recife and its consequent formulation of goals and strategies. The understanding of the relationship between Early Childhood Education in the municipality and the current SME can be evidenced in the following statement.
Even though LDB has signaled education … that early childhood education is the responsibility of education, this has not been achieved throughout the country. And the municipal plan comes to charge this effectiveness closely, because even after Recife, being one of the first municipalities that brought Early Childhood Education to daycare centers, for the teaching directorate, to understand how the municipalities and not the assistance, the municipalities not only from Pernambuco, but from other states are taking slow steps, so now the National Education Plan signals that the municipality has an obligation. Because the LDB is very clear, the obligation of early childhood education belongs to the municipality, and it is a priority responsibility. But even today the daycare center is seen as assistance, a space that is still very domestic, where it mixes with a cultural background, much of the way we were colonized, where caring is a minor thing. (Subject to)
Although legislative advances in the last 30 years have contributed to the perspective of education as a child’s right, the work with Early Childhood Education, being the first stage of Basic Education, is still heavily loaded with improvisations and amateurism. Although the Federal Constitution, the LDB, the PNE and Constitutional Amendment No. 59/2009 determine, organize and stipulate the attendance in Early Childhood Education, the edges of assistance are still present in the debates, reverberating in the routine of the nursery and preschool. If we consider its recent recognition, we can say that we will still have enough plenary sessions so that Early Childhood Education and its specificities are not treated as something less, just a space for children’s pastimes and custody.
Now, the government of the poor child and the ongoing social reconfigurations will have an important impact on the descriptions of childhood and the type of attention that it starts to require. New investments, new institutions, new professionals and a service belt are now organized due to the functioning of society no longer based on the family model, in which the man worked outside and the woman directed the space of the house. Speeches about poverty and reconfigurations in the world of work and home will be responsible for shifts in the order of speeches, which will admit and defend regular work with young children, from an early age, to use an expression of Fénelon . (GONDRA, 2011, p. 99)
In order to safeguard the PME – Recife, we have the contributions of a teacher with more recent experience in the municipality and who gradually appropriates the document and the actions proposed therein. It reveals the treatment that this stage of education has been receiving from the municipality and, in the perception of this teacher working in the classroom, there have been advances in the work performed, demonstrated in the following excerpt:
There has been an increase in the look at Early Childhood Education, which previously felt that it was more of a hobby and today there is already something that guides, as if it were parameters. We received material about it. Material issues have improved a lot, Mindlab helps a lot the logical reasoning issue, there are other toys that came from the “Ciranda de letras” project that came with the history books, that came with the games to stimulate the child, even the question of the perception of literacy, of literacy. Resource is coming, it is improving, but what is lacking is personal resource, not material resource. At least I think that’s it. (Subject D)
The changes in the treatment of Early Childhood Education in the city of Recife have been gradually standing out. We also recognize the presence of fragility in financial resources, in the composition of strategies for the classroom to be a place for the construction of knowledge, considering the specificities of Early Childhood Education, in addition to the necessary renovation of these spaces, adding the viability of growth and quality assurance teaching.
Even so, the relationship established between the PME and Early Childhood Education is filled with incessant challenges and contradictions, where debates hover over several aspects.
I keep saying and I tell everyone that discussing Child Education without leaving the paper is a political platform for an electoral campaign. I have not yet seen, in my 30 years of Early Childhood Education, a political will to make Early Childhood Education happen. If you have a continuity of a job well done in the daycare, not as assistance, but as education […], I think that if we had focused on this at least 20 years ago, today we might not be needing “If Leagues ”and“ Aceleras ” , it would not be in need of flow correction and maybe it had already been downloaded, including the issue of EJA. (Subject B)
Although the advances in the treatment of municipal Early Childhood Education are recognized, the highlight in their contradictions is not exempt. The condition of attending the age group from 0 to 5 years indicates the elaboration of action plans in line with the reality of each municipality and the characteristics of this public. Hence the criticism in the excerpt of speech above, which is not intended only for the care of Early Childhood Education, but for the Education Policy as a whole. Within this municipal context, we have countless communities of the most varied aspects that directly influence the attendance of Early Childhood Education. Society must remain vigilant in the Municipal Plans, since the verification of the quality or the lack of it is materialized in the goals and strategies not executed.
And that is it, some things when we talk about infrastructure is because it is still a result, there are many units that we have, these are the houses that, since I was not in education, started in social assistance. There were some houses, from some communities that opened their spaces for community crèches and when the Secretariat took over, they took over within those same spaces and have difficulties too. Nowadays, if you want to move from that space, to another space in that small community , you won’t even find another space. So there is a whole culture of that space, which has a whole history and continues to work, do you understand? It’s like this, we have remnants of a school park that is still since that time of social assistance, which is also not easy for you to end up like this. (Subject C)
The change in reflections on childhood, present in the reformulation of national laws, and the recognition of local power were starting points in the indications of the actions necessary to transform the teaching policies of Recife, providing the universalization of Early Childhood Education.
For Early Childhood Education? It was to ensure the rights of the child in terms of what had already been achieved. Nobody came to save humanity alone, right? We arrived to ensure that the legislation we had, you see, was not the point of arrival, this is something that I think is important to remember. The legislation for us, when we took over, was the starting point. Because? Because society was changing , it was changing, in a very structural way, and the current legislation no longer accounted for the rights attributed to children, adolescents, adults. So this also required management to contribute to the discussion, so much so that several discussions that were made so much were to discuss, to guide the understanding that legislation was just a starting point, the discussion of which favored and enabled. (Subject E)
Historical records show that communities considered the importance of Early Childhood Education and that they directly influenced the construction of the city’s political profile on Education, in the political and social conceptions that were present.
Communities participated in the design of the policy. So there was a concept of childhood that I might not have … And the level of community organization was decisive in meeting the law. When the community participates, setting priorities, then what regulates the law is the starting point for moving forward. (Subject E)
On the other hand, these same reasons limit the possibilities of change, coming up against the availability of new suitable spaces and the resistance of communities to changes. Breaking down these barriers is a latent challenge for the education network and for SMEs. Taking the statement of an interviewed subject who was in charge of the first actions that defined the essence of Educational Policies, it is clear that the speech is in line with the most pleaded proposition in the current PME.
In this alignment, national documents, which are composed of political, economic and educational ideals, were the basis for the elaboration of documents more directed to municipal education.
The education policies are plural because they are born of a social and political reality that rebels to meet the unique designs. Social and political groups at various levels of government do not conform to vertical guidelines. This means considering the strength of current governments and the role of the state in terms of social and democratic advances. Subnational governments, autonomous after 1988, are aware of variations in the modus operandi of their educational policies, considering their legal competences, the incentives received, fiscal capacity and also the degree of conscious action in order to implement social policy. (CURY, 2002, p. 153)
Given the above, we list some goals and strategies in the discussion on the Municipal Education Policy, as we understand that this debate took shape in the first movements to serve the daycare and pre-school population. Thus, Goal 1 addresses the universalization of early childhood education by 2016, for children aged 4 to 5 years of pre-school, in addition to expanding the offer of places in the daycare center, for children aged 0 to 3 years, by 70% by culmination of the plan in 2025. In verifying the efforts of the municipal network to meet this demand, we have the legitimation in the excerpt of speech of one of the interviewees:
The goals point to the end of the plan being the 70% service for 4 to 5 years and that is very little for Recife. This I say for the daycare service, this is very little because Recife already meets 50% of the daycare demand, so to think this, this percentage, raising from 50% to 70% is little, ok ? What we had asked for at the 2015 conference was that if the need was investigated, we would carry out this investigation with the child protection agencies; tutelary council and everything and building day care centers and CMEIs in the face of need, but unfortunately that did not pass, we were unable to approve, so the goal is still relevant to attendance in Early Childhood Education, but we think in the scope of Recife … but for what Recife has already done is very little. (Subject to)
Universalization. Early childhood education has always been treated as a piece, as a part. It came to be treated as a right. Because we have always defended universalization, now we continue to defend it. (Subject E)
Considering the demands for places in daycare centers and preschools in Recife, we have some references that the projection is based only on the demand of families to the City Hall and the Guardianship Council and what we realized is that the offer of places does not follow the birth rate the municipality. In this scenario, the periodicity of new construction is described.
So, I see today in Recife, one of the things that is said in the plan and suddenly I even agree, when we debated, we asked for universalization from 0 to 3. It is questioned that it cannot be universalized, because in LDB says it is a family option, so it cannot be universal, she puts it because she wants to. Then, in order not to universalize, there was a lowering of the target for 90% of children, then we question that 90% is too much, that it is a goal that will not be able to be achieved in the period that you have to accomplish. And the discussion that was generated, generated around that, we have been asking for low goals and they are never achieved, because the impression we have is that early childhood education is only used as a platform for the political campaign, in the political campaign everyone will do it and after it passes you don’t see the execution of it. (Subject B)
Still in this discussion about the goal established for the opening of new vacancies during the duration of the PME, the defense that a teacher with 30 years of experience in the network makes is enlightening.
SMEs are 10 years old, until 2025. So in a reality like Recife, having only 70% in 10 years is a very small growth and then we understand when they say that it is not possible to reach 95 or 90 years of universalization as we asked, because the number of vacancies that appears each year, they are minimal, when it appears. The number of units opened is small, some areas are mainly from 0 to 3 they do not have … They have what we call a bottleneck, here in RPA 1, you are unable to build new units in this environment. All units that have a lot … They are about 30 years old or more, when we refer to RPA 1. (Subject B)
As we can see, the issue of universal attendance to the daycare center is an open demand in the Educational Policy of Recife and there are still different positions, which ends up being a strong point in the debates about the PME.
Bordignon (2009) points out that the formulation of an SME must comply with a rite that respects some relevant aspects, including studies / diagnostic analysis of the conditions of the municipality and its subareas, and that considers the stages and modalities of teaching in which the accountability for the collaboration regime. In the case of our analyzed sphere, the municipality of Recife, the diagnostic evaluation for the understanding of needs must or should consider the following dimensions: “the description of reality from objective data and the identification of causes, determining factors of reality ”(BORDIGNON, 2009, p. 103).
Regarding the universalization or not of day care, there is evidence that more concrete data was lacking.
So, when we talk about this issue of expanding vacancies, it still leaves something to be desired, no matter how much discussion with the community we have already dropped to 90% and only 70% went to PME, the impression we have is that, in 10 years, they will not reach 70% precisely because of this lack of vacancies, mainly from 0 to 3. I believe that maybe from 4 to 5 they can, mainly because there is a demand in the Municipal Council of Education which is the streamlining of the accreditation processes of partner schools and private schools. Since the PME, it also responds to the number of children in private schools and this also reflects in the general aspect in private individuals . The demand on the council today, we feel, is to expedite the accreditation of partner schools, the Early Childhood Schools, which will reflect the increase in places, but this does not mean an increase in places in the municipal network and that there is a quality in the school and we understand that quality is not a lack of work, but that in some spaces there is no structure for this to work. (Subject B)
If we accept the first movements in the education policy of the network, directing the discussion towards improvements in the attendance of Early Childhood Education and the representativeness of the components of municipal management, communities and the teacher, what is expressed is exactly the expectations of those who are directly participatory and responsible for the implementation of the goals and strategies contained in the SME:
It is … respecting the search for … We even signaled in 2015 at COMUDE, how many children were of day care and school age and how much we should attend. In the national document, it pointed out 55% from 0 to 3 and we wanted 75% because the 55% we already answered. And then it would be to expand the physical spaces, qualify, have … It is to break with this concept, which is still separate, because there is only theory that in Early Childhood Education, caring and educating are inseparable. This is only in theory, because in practice there is still this conception of the teacher that the subject who only does, discusses thinking and the assistant who takes care and hygiene, food. As long as we have this concept, it will be difficult to expand it. (Subject to)
Reiterating this debate
Then I used to say that all the mistakes and successes, we are still gaining from all the mistakes, because when I started … I entered a time when the people who guided me are old … At the time, I called the Day Care Department and was linked to the Department of Special Programs, we were not tied to Education, we were a project. Over time, there was this dissociation and we started to have differentiated training. So with this recognition that Early Childhood Education was education and the emergence of the first writings on Early Childhood Education.
So you start to read and study in training focused on Early Childhood Education, what are we going to work on, how can we work, how are you going to use games and toys, you know, this thing. (Subject B)
The speech of our subject with more than thirty years of experience in municipal Early Childhood Education exposes the memory of transitions in care. These indications of changes in the context are justified in the ordering of legislation on Early Childhood Education, starting with the Federal Constitution, in 1988, which determines the provision of education by the State from birth, from the perspective of the right of the child, pointing out their social rights.
That was a moment of great boiling and that was discussing Organic Law, and discussing the Federal Constitution, discussing the State Constitution, discussing all the regulatory frameworks that should be reinvented to account for the new reality that was emerging in the country, which was where it fit the bionic mayor not directly elected. I don’t know if I was clear … Now all these policies, which I think is an important issue, what made the basic articulation between the different municipal policies guaranteeing a unity, was the perception of education as a right. So if it was like right, then it couldn’t be treated like a deal that you offered when you had money to spend, right? It was inherent to the very identity of the Brazilian State, in our case, that we are discussing the municipal sphere, it was to ensure education as a right, regardless of whether or not you have the money to pay. (Subject E)
At this juncture, several studies indicate that for decades Brazil has had the influence of private bodies, which still remain on the education of children.
Historically, early childhood education in Brazil is based on public-private partnership, mainly in municipalities with a higher population density, which occurs in state capitals. (SUSIN; MONTANO, 2015, p. 75)
Another important point in the debate on the relationship between PME and Early Childhood Education is the treatment for teacher training. In the education networks, the incessant discussion about its essence is notorious, considering the formation of the teacher since the university. Throughout the reformulation of the laws of education, the recognition of teachers as agents of knowledge transmission, in the school environment and outside, shows that continued qualification is essential.
Historical documents on the first actions of the Municipal Education Policy, for the training of teachers working on the school floor, propose that the pedagogical monitoring of the education network should be based on the school as a place for the construction of knowledge, considering the obstacles and the need for changes in an ever-changing society, recalled in the following excerpt:
In this sense, the pedagogical follow-up carried out in the Pre-school, in line with the training policy of the Secretariat of Education and Culture / Fundação Guararapes, took on the challenge of building a practice that would ensure teachers and supervisors conduct the pedagogical process from the perspective to ensure that the children who attend the municipal preschool have the conditions to create a literacy environment, starting from their reality in life and gradually building the reader / producer / citizen. (RECIFE, 1988, p. 15)
Teacher training is a vigorous discussion in educational legislation, from the construction of the curriculum in training courses, in union movements in the category and in the routine of continuing training. In the debate with the Municipal Plan of Recife, Goal 1, which deals with Early Childhood Education, indicates two strategies for promoting continuing teacher education and the criteria for acting in the network.
1.8) Promote the continuing education of professionals in early childhood education, including the use of educational software, tools and technological interfaces, giving priority to network professionals as trainers;
1.18) Hold public tenders for education professionals, when necessary, in order to meet the demand proposed by the goal.
As can be seen, Goal 1, of the PME, indicates the valorization of professionalization, through the use of public tenders, and of professionals linked to Early Childhood Education.
What is posted in the PME is linked to other documents in the network, such as those contained in the “Methodological Theoretical Foundations of the Municipal Education Policy – 2014”, which deals with teacher education, dialoguing with the proposed curriculum for the classroom and considering the diverse readings of the world present in the students’ daily lives.
The goals are common, to understand the world around us: nature, men and women, how they live, how they organize, how they produce and how they celebrate. Permanences, changes, transformations that occur in time and space. Conflicts, possibilities for peace. Diversity, the environment and how to guarantee it for future generations. (RECIFE, 2014, p. 115)
The advent of a more structured teaching policy made it possible to highlight the specificity of Early Childhood Education, aiming at teacher training in daycare centers and preschools, obeying the rite in teacher training, set out in Art. 62, of the Law of Guidelines and Bases in Education, nº 9.394 / 96, which determines the mandatory training in higher education for a Full Degree, required for the exercise of teaching in Basic Education, and the guarantee of offering continuing education, given the breadth of teaching activity in a constant evolutionary process.
Another aspect defended is the association of professional and personal training, as an incentive for constant reflection and self-training of teachers, with the aim of exploring different technologies, creativity and the exchange of experiences.
It is possible to perceive the inevitable overlap between theory and practice and the importance of promoting reflections that favor the collective pedagogical practice in the search to overcome obstacles present in the classroom. (RECIFE, 2015, p. 61)
When proposing a comparative analysis between the suggested execution and the target audience , one of our interviewees describes the organization of the training.
Here we have, in the Department of Education, a Continuing Education Management and they have … I realize that they have advanced. So, there is a training school, there is a group of trainers and, especially this year, they advanced more in a proposal to do, for example, by modular courses, to take themes for the teacher from 0 to 3, for the teacher to get closer the theme that each teacher acts from 0 to 3, child development, within a continuity, modular, that you address. Then this year they are starting with a new format that has the course, which is modulated with a focus on child development that takes teachers from 0 to 3, for example: nursery and group 01 in a single class. I believe there is an advance there. (Subject C)
However, in another report, the impression we have is of a non-linear movement, pointing out that the Teacher Education Policy, now advances, now goes backwards, but that continues to place the specificity of Early Childhood Education as a guide for debates and actions .
I think we have to think about practice and use training subsidies, I think we have to build everyday life, like Certeau puts it. It is not easy because when we are in everyday life, we cannot make this reflection of the elements … It is from the theoretical basis, and reading the theoretical basis is also very distant from the confrontations that we have in everyday life, we do not see this. So we don’t have this training to make this link, that our academic training helps us in this training in the construction of daily life. (Subject to)
The debate also considers the initial training of the teacher who will work in Early Childhood Education.
The reformulation of the Pedagogy curriculum is also pressure. I still think so, these movements are more driven by teachers, the one that requires it from the teacher’s perspective, but even if you see it, when you notice the movement of neighborhood mothers, she asks for the daycare, because in her conception it is for the daycare is local where she can leave her child, because she needs it, so that she can fulfill her job function. But it also does not stop these women’s movements, even in this vision of putting pressure on the government to be able to have a nursery, to be able to stay with the child, also boosted the expansion of care. (Subject C)
Despite the advances perceived by the interviewees in the formulation of the PME, the floor of daycare centers and schools are the indicators and thermometers of the municipal network’s efforts to meet these goals. Even so, weaknesses that are difficult to overcome are registered and, in the opinion of these subjects who belong to municipal Early Childhood Education, there are vulnerabilities in the goals and strategies put in the PME, considering the period of validity of the document and the term for execution.
First there are no vacancies … Many vacancies. Then there is a lack, and then I am one of the privileged, a lack of physical structure. It is in some and those that have physical structure, even working conditions, because they have physical structure, but there are rooms that they are not able to work, because it is moldy. The matter of material is missing , it is not the toy, it is not the project outside, but the basics: the proper clay, the appropriate crayon, the appropriate colored pencil, the paper that can work the large paper or the quality paper for that you can work with. Missing … I think the recognition, despite the words that we are really Early Childhood Education. I think words of encouragement exist, but I still think that there is still a lack of recognition that we are in fact the first stage of Early Childhood Education. (Subject B)
Considering strategy 1.2, which deals with the universalization of places in pre-school by the year 2016 and the expansion of attendance by 70% of places for the daycare center public, Oliveira (2013) makes the following comment:
In our country, institutions maintained by the government have given priority to enrolling children of low-income workers, invoking the notion of “social risk”. Sometimes the argument is that the education of children before the age of entering elementary school should be a service of assistance to families, so that fathers and mothers can work unconcerned with the basic care to be given to their young children. On other occasions, it is argued, particularly by privileged social groups, that daycare and pre-school should be organizations concerned with ensuring the learning and overall development of children from birth. (OLIVEIRA, 2013, p. 37)
In the construction of a brief analysis using data on Recife, the indicators revealed that, in 2010 , the municipality had a population density of 7082.32 inhabitants / km². Considering the figures presented in the Municipal Health Plan of Recife (2014-2017), the population estimate for 2013 is set at 1,599,514. In these figures, it is described that the majority of the population of Recife is female, with approximately 860,538 women, representing 53.8% of the population. According to the database of the state of Pernambuco, in 2010, the fertility rate in Recife was 1.35% . In line with these data, we have, in the period from 2006 to 2013, an average of 40,750 children born in Recife, of which 46.93% are children of women living in the municipality of Recife. As of 2011, some changes were noticed, with an increase in the Declarations of Live Births (DNV), children of women from other municipalities, totaling 6,680 DNV 37 in 2012. As a result, the average number of live births to mothers inhabitants in Recife is 22,290 children.
As shown in the table below on the relationship between live births and the mothers’ age group, there was a decrease in the percentage of younger mothers, between 15 and 19 years old, and an increase in the range of women over 35 years old.
When analyzing the exposed data, it is evident that Recife is a municipality with superlative population data. In comparison with enrollments in daycare centers and municipal preschools, in 2018, there were 5,948 students in the day care center (0 to 3 years old) and 11,995 in preschool (4 to 5 years old), totaling 17,943 students. In a basic calculation, it appears that, on average, 4,347 children have no guaranteed place in daycare centers, regardless of demand, showing that the enrollments offered do not keep up with the demand of children in the municipality.
When bringing the teaching discourse, another important aspect deals with the physical and structural conditions of daycare centers and preschools.
I also think that, in terms of infrastructure, we need to advance more, much more, in the renovation of the spaces that we have, because it meets the need, especially the child, because he needs it, sometimes he still has tiny spaces. When I say renovation … There is renovation, enlargement and construction, because there is space that can’t even be expanded, if you renovate it is a patch, but even so, it gives the child well-being in that place, but I think it is enlargement, because we still have small units, which is … It is not a place for children to play, to spend all day. A pleasant space, that has a cafeteria, that is not confined in a room at the time of feeding, that he leaves the room for this space. And it reflects well on the infrastructure of the teacher, it brings better working conditions and the valorization of it too, if he sees himself in a pleasant space, that he also has his place at times, for discussing, to keep material, other than just that room space with children. (Subject C)
The indications of the interviewed subject deal with some gaps in the execution of the PME’s strategies. The commitment to improve care in Early Childhood Education, established in the federalist collaboration regime, is found in strategy 1.4 of Goal 1, with emphasis on respect for accessibility standards in spaces, with the restructuring and acquisition of equipment. Strategy 1.5 highlights the efforts to raise funds, subsidized by the federal government for the acquisition, improvement and expansion of physical spaces for early childhood education, as well as improvements, through adequate equipment, in addition to the inclusion of students with special needs, according to the strategy 1.6.
Regulation and inspection generate bureaucracy, which ends up limiting financial autonomy in the school reality, since there is a dissociation between the deadline for delivery, school planning, the analysis of plans, the distribution of resources among the system’s priorities, sending and the application of funds. What happens is that, in practice, the school’s demands for financial resources refer to the needs of the pedagogical work developed during the school year and the funds often arrive after the period foreseen for their application. (BOTLER, 2015, p. 108)
The mismatch between the availability of financial resources and pedagogical planning is notorious. This obstacle stands out in Early Childhood Education due to the insufficient financial resources allocated to this stage of Basic Education. According to Law No. 11.494 / 2007, which establishes FUNDEB, in Article 8, it is indicated that the distribution of resources from national monetary funds between states and municipalities should be coupled with the number of students enrolled in person. As already described in this chapter, the commitment made at PME – Recife to universalize and expand the offer of places, in daycare and pre-school, is still far from being realized, causing an inversely proportional relationship between the available resources and the need to greater investments for restructuring Early Childhood Education, as well as questioning the possibility of reaching the goal in the remaining period of validity of the document.
For the improvement and consolidation of activities, some inputs would make an immense contribution to the work in the classroom, as described below.
I believe that support, as if it were a coordination, or a management or something closer to the teacher, to facilitate the work and even assist him in the classroom. Because in Early Childhood Education, if you have a special student, there is no classroom assistant. There are 20 in group 4 and 25 students in group 5, only the teacher and the children. As much as the teacher wants to do the activities, wants to do things, sometimes it is difficult for that. Because there is only the teacher, then the biggest difficulty I feel is this. It will be my fourth Child Education class in Recife. (Subject D)
The quotations range from the insufficiency of support professionals at the school and at the Secretariat of Education to the difficulty in including students with special needs and the availability of professionals to assist the work in the classroom. The indications in the National Curriculum Guidelines for Early Childhood Education account for the difficulties and the need to include children in the most varied characteristics.
The reduction of social and regional inequalities and the promotion of the good of all (art. 3, items II and IV of the Federal Constitution) are commitments to be pursued by the education systems and by teachers also in Early Childhood Education. It is well known in the country the inequality of access to daycare centers and preschools among white and black children, living in urban and rural areas, in the south / southeast and north / northeast regions and, mainly, rich and poor. In addition to inequalities of access, unequal conditions of the quality of education offered to children also constitute violations of their constitutional rights and characterize these spaces as instruments that, instead of promoting equity, feed and reinforce socioeconomic, ethnic inequalities -racial and regional. As a result, the fundamental objectives of the Republic will be implemented in the scope of Early Childhood Education if daycare centers and pre-schools fully fulfill their socio-political and pedagogical function. (BRASIL, 2013, p. 85)
In the sum of the difficulties, including the other visits, the complexities of the municipality are evident in view of the degree of requirements and even the inability to manage what was defined in the preparation of the document.
Considering the social base of the municipality, political discussion has been present since the democratic reopening. The profile of the municipality, forged through struggles with popular participation, shows the political-historical bias materialized in the advances, through dialogues between the government and community base.
I say the following, I put a lot in this dispute: depending on the social base that the government of Recife has, it advances, it inverts the law as a starting point, without having as a point of arrival, then it does not jump, it is not just to comply the law. Or if it has a strong social base, it moves forward. I always argued that educational opportunities are as diverse as the people who are in this educational process are diverse. As the difference between one and the other does not turn into inequality, I don’t know if I was clear to you. Our education with this bourgeois discourse is that everyone should have the same opportunities, how can I give the people of the hill the same opportunities? I am those … There has to be much more … Yeah noticing? Diverse opportunity, that allows to reach all his needs and all in common, equally. (Subject E)
In the study on the relationship between Early Childhood Education in the municipality of Recife and the PME, we can find several indicators on the implementation of goals and strategies. These signs can be measured in the activities that take place on the floor of daycare centers and preschools . The daily work, reported by teachers and assistants in early childhood education, brings the materialization of what is set and what is performed. The tip of the spear, where it is delegated and executed, carries countless possibilities. Whether in financial matters, universalization and expansion of enrollments, improvement in resources and physical structure, or in the awareness of promoting Early Childhood Education from the perspective of the law of the child.
The Brazilian historical context, laden with political, social and economic barriers, results, in most cases, in the control of the access of the less privileged strata of society to the diverse educational opportunities. This practice leads to commitment to the exercise of democracy.
The changes that occurred over time provided advances in the architecture of the Brazilian State, reaching the condition of a democratic Federative Republic. This situation will only remain firm in the face of the continuity of the struggles defended by society, safeguarding the characteristics of a democratic state under the law.
Belonging to collectivities provided the right to exercise democracy. In view of the determination that the federalist structure would be for cooperation between the Union, the Federal District, states and municipalities, the struggle remains latent to guarantee dialogue, interposed in the safeguarding of civil rights to a people that unfolds in a recent democratic republic.
However, as democracy advances with the representativeness of the people, the debates on the determinations laid down in educational legislation also advance, resulting in the accountability of states and municipalities for compliance. However, considering the peculiarities of each state or municipality, limitations on meeting the established minimum standard must be filed.
The historical-political context of the municipality of Recife has pioneered the debates in defense of public education, aligned with the advance of Brazilian democracy and, consequently, of society. Records indicate that Recife did not treat legislation as a tight spot, but as a starting point for the necessary changes to the municipality. The work carried out in conjunction with the other municipal secretariats and the communities has borne fruit that remains contemporary. It is public and notorious that the actions of the not-too-distant past are references to the decisions taken today. The condition of capital city of the state, holder of qualified human capital, and access to the most diverse agendas and actions contained in the current legislation is the starting point for the most diverse actions aimed at municipal education. Even though we recognize that there is still a lot to do – and in the research period we acquired several evidences of this -, the teacher’s routine, active in the classroom or in other spaces in Early Childhood Education, awakened in us a feeling of deepening and empathy with the first stage of Basic Education.
The materialization of the actions of the state and the responsibility of the municipality, in this case Recife, do not focus only on the child audience, but one of our main research interests, which was Goal 1 and its 21 strategies, containing the concept of childhood and provision of services and consolidated through the document built in an assembly with wide participation of the various segments of society.
The PME – Recife (2015-2025), although subject to several criticisms and questions, contains the essence of municipal education and plays the role of guiding the assistance, directed to a huge portion of the population.
In this scenario, there is recognition of the several advances in Early Childhood Education in the city of Recife, based on the contributions of our interviewees, the bibliographic survey and historical documents, when we could identify that there are no records of municipal education plans after the political reopening until the sanction of the SME (2015-2025). These records show that, in the period mentioned, there were only work plans, without proper identification in the form of law. This fact is also in line with the inconsistency in Article 2 of the National Education Plan (2001-2011), when it only requires states, Federal District and municipalities to draw up equivalent ten-year plans.
To support the recognition of the difficulties of Early Childhood Education, we highlighted some gaps and advances in proposals for early childhood, highlighting the universalization of enrollment, the use of federal resources for the purchase of equipment, the improvement of the physical structure of daycare centers and pre-schools, including with the intention of promoting the inclusion of children with a disability, as well as hiring teachers via public exam and the indication of specific continuing education for professionals working in Early Childhood Education. It is also possible to mention the viability of a close relationship between the Secretariat of Education, the Guardianship Council and the Public Ministry in order to guarantee the offer of enrollment and attendance of children in preschool, reflecting various struggles, such as feminist movements, which resulted in the recognition of Early Childhood Education from the perspective of children’s rights.
However, it is clear that the objectives have not yet been fully achieved and still need vast efforts to overcome the most diverse obstacles, such as those that take shelter in the political demands of the municipality.
Even so, the treatment in this contemporary scenario differs with some caveats from the assistance and hygienist education of the past, since it relies on the authentication and strengthening of our history and the basis of our cultural formation and identity as a people.
To account for this context, two laws deal with national education Compra de Diplomas, Comprar Diplomas, Comprar Diploma Quente, the specific text of the Federal Constitution of 1988 and the Law of Guidelines and Bases, nº 9.394 / 96. They indicate and guide the construction of a national education identity and are reinforced by the National Education Plan, which requires states, the Federal District and municipalities to formulate their plans.
It is also essential to highlight that these documents, identified as guardians of national education, are continually strengthened by incorporating popular participation, considering that the absence of this segment excludes and tests the essence of hard-won Brazilian democracy, since the decisions that involve the fate of a nation should not be one-sided.
The conception of public policies outlines the desires and needs of society to improve the quality of life of thousands of citizens, configuring itself as an instrument that materializes the action of the State, as a great regulator, articulator and executor, personalizing the interests of political groups that are in control of government action.
Even with the advent of educational legislation, we still have some rancidity attributed to daycare centers and preschools, which are often seen only as spaces for the care and hobby of children Compra de Diploma, Comprar Diploma, Comprar Diploma Quente, which shows that there is still resistance over the concept that educating and caring are inseparable. Therefore, we cannot fail to highlight that one of the biggest obstacles, considering our opinion, is the unavailability of financial resources, which consequently leads to the difficulty in universalizing the offer, in the lack of quality in the offered structure, in teacher training and in more diverse inputs.
It is necessary to understand that, regardless of the characteristics of the political group in action, the rights and duties laid down by law must be guaranteed and that State policies stand out from management policies, with society being responsible for monitoring, monitoring and inspection.
The municipality of Recife, our research field, is recognized as the birthplace of nationalist and regionalist struggles Compra de Diploma, Comprar Diplomas, Comprar Diploma Quente, bringing together a historic and thriving popular participation.
Contemporary society is responsible for enforcing the law, in defense of the public good, strengthening the essence of municipal education.
The period of validity of the PNE (2014-2024) and the PME – Recife (2015-2025) positions society in general to monitor its execution, in addition to the indication to other researchers to carry out academic research, in the face of discoveries and refutations about existing statements Compra de Diploma, Comprar Diplomas, Comprar Diploma Quente. The dedication to new studies on the conception of childhood and the efforts to implement the goals and assistance, installed in the documents and in the teaching policy of the states and municipalities, are not limited to this work. This should be treated as a starting point. Its continuity will offer society the possibility of knowing and discussing even more the specificities of Early Childhood Education.